Besides, Dean outlined two conceptual frameworks for welfare rights, including doctrinal concept and claims-based concept. Doctrinal concept 'ensured equal opportunity through the redistribution of opportunities, rather than outcomes'. Claims-based concept 'demanded not merely formal equality of status, but the actual redistribution of resources'. Moreover, Dwyer (2004) pointed out there are four principles underpinning welfare rights, including universalism, selectivism, contributory/social...
Using the very large variation in the inflow of immigration across the states of US and other countries states we examine the force of immigration employment, average working hours, money growth and one most important, the total factors efficiency. At the same time we find striking proof that the total factors of increased productivity. These are some of the very robust reasons of controlling for many other determinants of efficiency that may vary with topography such as R&D ...
The following paper takes a closer look at the Budget system in Republic of Macedonia (hereinafter Macedonia). It looks at the different legislation that surrounds the budget cycle in Macedonia, such as the Budgets Law, Law on Execution of the Budget, Law on Accounting of the Budget and Budgets Users as well as refers to other laws that support the evaluation. The main goal is to evaluate the existing budget system looking through the ten principles defined in the OECD Journal of Budgeting...
The term public private partnership is a relationships between public and private sectors in the provision of infrastructure and other services. Other terms used for this type of activity include private sector participation (PSP) and privatization. Public private partnership is a leasing arrangement, a private company or a group of companies undertake to finance and build an asset, and in some cases run the assets and provide a service associated with it, in exchange of annual fee under a...
BRIC, is an acronym apparent first used in Goldman Sachs investment bank by Jim O'Neill in 2001. It contains four largest and fastest growing emerging economies (Brazil, Russia, India and China). (Goldmann Sachs, 2003) All the four countries have some common features, as Havlik et al (2009) state, including large territory and population, low income level but fast economic growth. The four countries encompass over 25% of the world's land coverage and 40% of the world's population,...
In this essay I am going to discuss and identify a range of explanations for inequalities in a contemporary UK society. What does Inequality mean? There have been many explanations to the meaning of equality and the reasons why inequality exists. From the authors view point inequality means the inability to bring about equal treatment or same access as another. This view point can be elaborated on exponentially as there are many sources of inequality within the UK. Many questions can be raised...
Modern welfare state development is generally considered to lead to social security or benefits payments, social housing provision, health provision, social work and educational services. Together these services are known as the 'big five' but these services tend to develop over time and have differed in quantity, availability and quality. Provision and development can change due to social, economic and political factors (Spicker, 1995, p. 3). State provision of welfare has a long history, in...
Deconcentration model of decentralization is represented by two main characteristics. The first one defines the offices of the central government which are places in the local governments, which even though provides feedback to the central government about the local service delivery preferences; it implements the central plan at the end. The second characteristic defines the authority of the central government in the decision making process when it comes to the employment of the local staff....
Abortion involves removing the embryo or fetus from the uterus, which results in the death of the embryo. Abortion also has another meaning which is the procedure done during pregnancy to remove the embryo inside the uterus. Abortion can happen by accident such as miscarriage or natural causes or on purpose by performing minor operation. However, most of the abortions are done intentionally. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abortion) It is shown in the below graph the statistics of number of woman...
The criminal justice system and prison experience are common elements of popular culture and public discourse. Candidates for public office frequently verbalize their positions on tough sentencing, crime levels, and prison over-crowding. The nightly news is littered with stories of criminals arrested for a litany of different offenses, often sparking dinner-table debates over the manner in which society should addresses such instances of malfeasance. Even so, dialogue regarding the...