Debating The Topic Of Global Warming Environmental Sciences
Global warming is an uequal debated topic which has been discussed through the dawn of modern life. Recently, global warming has become one of the most important environmental issues of modern period t that has taken an extra attention from scientists, politicians, public and many other organisations (Goudie & Cuff, 2008). The unusual rising of temperature and natural events indicate that global warming has affected seriously . However, global warming can be measured by examining the radiation wave from the sun that warms the earth's surface . A natural balance of the radiation wave between the earth surface and atmosphere is mandatory. Otherwise, natural imbalance makes the average surface temperature high which is defined as global warming (Houghton, 1997,p.26 ).There is no doubt that global warming effect has a negative impact on climate change and it is clearly seen in nature. Therefore, global warming has become a matter that need to be concerned seriously.
This essay is going to explore four imporatnt facts and then four myths of global warming based on the opinion of scientists, politicians and many other calsses of people. A few of the oppinions are scientifically proved and may be some just assumptions. Still both sides (facts and myths) of global warming will be presented with different concepts.
First of all, human activities are considered the reason of global warming by destroying forests and also generating fossil fuels like coal, natural gas and oil. The recent issue proven by scientists shows that these human activities are generating more carbon dioxide than any other sources. In 1990, the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has released that emissions created by human are responsible for the increased amount of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons and nitrous oxide (Pearce, 1991, p.938). Research also shows that the present amount carbon dioxide has exceeded the natural amount of carbon-dioxide by 25 percent over the past 650,000 years. Moreover, according to the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis, it is assumed that excessive amount of carbon dioxide has increased the earth's average temperature and because of that Arctic (the Earth's North Pole) ice has been melting constantly. Finally based on the above information given by different sectors of people, human unconscious and destructive activities should be control to prevent global warming (Environmental Defence Fund [EDF], 2010).
Second important fact is the presence of water vapour that creates global warming in earth. Scientists believe that water vapour has more capability to increase the temperatures of the earth's surface than carbon dioxide. The amount of carbon dioxide can be measured by observing how much greenhouse gases are being produced by burning fossil fuels. But to find the presence of water vapour is complex; it can only be determined by the rising of temperatures. And, it is known by all that the warmer temperatures created by carbon dioxide gives water vapour chance to grow quickly (EDF, 2010). So, after observing the complicated cycle, scientists claim that water vapour is the main greenhouse gas that needs to pay more attention to reduce the effect of global warming in earth (Department of Climate Change [DCC], 2009).
There no confusion that the effect of global warming is destructive. Moreover, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration also agree that the consequences of global warming are devastating. Scientists believe that if global warming continues rising temperature like this, the world will have an additional temperature of 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit which will have a negative impact on human health, sea levels, glaciers, and also in weather patterns. There is no doubt that extreme weather incidents have already started everywhere. For illustration, it can be mentioned that in 2005 because of the warmer sea level; United States faced the deadliest and the most dangerous hurricanes in their history. Moreover the effect of global warming on health is terrible. It is experimented that warm weather motivates mosquitoes (infectious diseases carrier) flying long distances and also because of hot temperature asthma and allergy patients suffer a lot. In addition, wildlife is also in risk as their ecosystem is being disturbed vastly. Above all it proves that overall creatures on earth are seriously mortified by the destructive global warming (Natural Resources Defence Council [NRDC], 2008).
The last fact basically declares the positive responses of global warming policy from everyone. The earth's climate has always been changed, flowing through the series of warming and cooling cycles. However, continuous and large-scale of changes in nature have forced nations to implement some policies to lessen global warming. At last, the United Nation has realised the importance of global warming policy and they decided to take action internationally which afterwards became the skeleton of climate change conferences and the Kyoto Protocol. On that framework, thirty-eight industrialised countries had been asked to reduce emission of green house gases. All countries with a separate goal have promised to mitigate global warming by 2012. However, researchers suggest that there is no proof that global warming policy will take away the economic progress and thousands of jobs. A study from Management Information Technology (MIT) also adds that to make the global warming policy successful a household will have to spend less than twenty dollars and also no negative impact on unemployment problem. In addition, an acid rain program that launched by the United States helped them to reduce sulphur dioxide emission by thirty percent and it cost only a little they budgeted. So, at last it proves that properly deigned policy will be able to reduce global warming effect dramatically (EDF, 2010).
The first myth of global warming starts against the first fact that has been discussed earlier. Although human activities are mentioned main cause for global warming; it is also being expressed that global warming is just a part of natural cycle. According to the report of Environment Defence Fund, the overall temperature of the earth North Pole (Arctic) had been increasing from the beginning of civilisation when there were few people in earth (EDF, 2010). So, basically there is no persuasive evidence that human activities have actually accelerated the North Pole temperature. Furthermore, Zimmermann claims that tropical ecosystems, for example-soil organic matter acts like a catalyst to increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth surface. So, it is suggested to consider just not only human activities but also another important issue; natural cycle and ecosystem which we cannot deny to happen global warming in earth (Zimmermann, 2009, p.895).
Secondly, another myth is about the main greenhouse gas known as carbon dioxide. It has been said before as a fact that water vapour takes part in the global warming. Although water vapour stores more heat than carbon dioxide does; surprisingly main greenhouse gas-carbon dioxide should be controlled first to stop global warming. A very recent research explains that firstly carbon dioxide warms the surface temperature and after that water vapour receives that. So, logically it proves that the amount of carbon dioxide plays vital role than water vapour to build up t global warming (EDF, 2010).
Although the fact of global warming is known to all; still some believe that global warming is sometimes beneficial to nature. Greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide acts as fertilizer for plants and also contributes in natural ecosystem (NRDC, 2008). It is observed that greenhouse gases play a vital role to make a balance between the incoming and outgoing radiation level and surface heat as well. Research also shows that because of natural greenhouse effect, the earth's surface temperature is about 33ËšC warmer .The natural greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide) save human lives from cold death. So, without carbon dioxide it would be hard to survive on the earth. Although worldwide there is panic about the dangerous effect of global warming but still it plays a valuable role to our natural plant and environment (DCC, 2009).
There is a belief that even global warming is a problem; developed countries like American industries and workers think they will lose their job and will face a negative effect on economic growth (EDF, 2010). Rose, Stevens and Wise (1998) claim that the major obstacles of global warming policy is the inequality between industrialised and developing countries ; also considered injustice by fixing emission cost by individual country basis. Therefore, some developing countries are forced to support the cost of reducing green house emission; although they did not produce that amount of greenhouse gases. This makes disagreement between developed and developing countries. Furthermore, scientific uncertain belief on global warming also effects on the enforcement of global warming policy. As a result the implication of global warming policy has become more complicated and unproductive ( Randhir , 2003, pp.134-135).
However, based on the discussion, it is believed that global warming is a fact. Pearce (1991) stated that global warming increases by human activities. Moreover, it is said that the effect of global warming on human lives and animals is devastating. Recently, world has been facing many unusual natural incidents like extreme temperature, drought, floods and also higher sea level. So, there is no confusion that global warming is happening and it is true. Therefore, steps should be taken seriously because global warming is a fact.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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