Poverty Reduction Through The Local Level Environmental Sciences
In Nepal 80 of the total population are agricultural base. The Agricultural program focuses on poverty alleviation and improving food security, nutrition and environment improving. Across project many have International and National non-governmental organization are talking of business development services (BDS) or value -chain approach. The BDS approach includes an emphasis in on building the capacity of supply chain enterprises to manufacture and distribute agricultural equipment and inputs that are suitable for smallholders, and establishing private sector markets. I/NGOS build the capacity of private enterprises to provide embedded training services for farmers with the sale of imputes or the purchase of outputs. For example, micro irrigation equipment dealers train farmers to use irrigation system that they sell and also provide agriculture advice for system buyers.
Many of I/NGOs approach also include providing technical assistance to early technology adopters to create demand for business services. These approaches also includes strong Public Private Partnership (PPP) with the governmental to ensure that public goods such as market information, infrastructure, research, policy, water source development, and other public services to improve sub sector performance are supplied.Market Oriented
Nepal is in unique position to rapidly increase agriculture incomes through development of high value commodities for export markets. Nepal has a comparative advantage in high -value commodities due to agro-climate conditions that allow for off -season/ low -cost production for vast South Asian Markets. Despite having identified this strategy more than 15th - 18th years ago. Nepal lags behind in integrating smallholder farmer for export opportunities. Nepal remains a net importer for many commodities for which it has comparative advantage. Most of the I/NGOs are taking lead to develop systems that enable smallholder to take advantage of export opportunities across projects.
For examples one of the I/NGO's has been lunching agriculture increase incomes and improve food security and nutrition progarmme coverage's in 40 District out of 75 District in Nepal. Their programme coverage directly 85000 households (600000 people) to escape poverty and establish invigorated sub sectors that will be grow sustainable, providing new opportunities for millions of poor smallholders into the future.
Despite the difficult insurgency conditions in Nepal the Agriculture programe had a tremendous year in 2004, expanding program activities and funding, developing new initiatives, and having a very strong development impact. Impact 2004, I/NGO's work directly with thousands of group of household in increasing annual incomes by about $100.00 per household and establishing supply chains and market channels that were recognized with high level visitors to field site.Support for peace Building
One of the major causes fueling conflict in Nepal is a lack of economic opportunities and a failure of government and donor-supported development programs to reach disadvantaged communities and the rural poor. A recent survey for NDI found that the number one concern of the Nepali people was a lack of economic opportunity followed by the increased violence. These I/NGO's are working to provide commercial opportunities to poor and disadvantage households. Opportunities such as horticultural production are well suited to the rural poor who have surplus labor relative to land resources as non-timber forest products and crops such as coffee and tea, and livestock use marginal lands. These programs are activating the government to deliver services to the rural poor and are showing that markets can work to the help the poor and disadvantaged escape poverty.Initiative support for Micronutrient
Some I/NGO's has initiated activities to address micronutrient deficiencies in rural diets applying agriculture solutions. The wide impact of micronutrient deficiencies on cognitive development and human health is one of the most pressing problems for the poor in Nepal and developing countries. It is now recognized that micronutrient deficiencies and poverty are mutually reinforcing, with micronutrients deficiency being a major cause as well as a result of poverty. These I/NGO's participated in the different International Conference on micronutrient deficiency in Kathmandu and development linkages with effects to address this major problem. Some I/NGO's are working to introduce research results into supply chains that serve smallholders such as appropriate micronutrient soil amendments, varieties with greater micronutrient content and developing more diversified diets. Increased vegetable production has also reduced local vegetable prices enabling many more poor households to increase their vegetable consumption and improve their nutritional status.Linking Clean Energy
I/NGO's Agriculture developments a partnership with their Clean Energy program to link clean energy technologies to agriculture activities. I/NGO's are working to development and apply appropriate solar drying technologies for horticulture produce, gasification technology for application of heat in distillation processes and drying, and the use of electricity for irrigation pumping. Few programmes are also collaborating to establish Internet information services kiosks in remote areas.Agriculture Markets
I/NGO's took a lead in applying ICT solutions to link smallholder to markets. The Nepal Tree Crop Global Development Alliance (NTC-GDA) assisted in development of a tea promotion website for an industry association (www.nepaltea.com.np), Business Development Services-Marketing and Production Services (BDS-MaPa) is working to do the same for an non-timber forest products (NTFP) industry association, smallholder Irrigation Markets Initiative (SIMI) has linked with government and community radio to provide practical price information that is helping smallholders make decisions, and disseminating market information (www.agripricenepal.com.np), and to develop trade matching e-commerce services.Programme Success
I/NGO's have directly benefited thousands of households with training and assistance. Each of these households represents success stories of families that have increased their income and realized their potential better.Off -Season Vegetables Production
Off Season vegetable cultivation has a high potential in the mountain areas. Vegetable crops have added significance due to the important involvement of women in all aspects of production. Off-season production of vegetable command price two to three times higher than main season production the same. The successful cultivation of off-season vegetables in Nepal has made a significant impact on the local economy with the supply of vegetables in the domestic markets. The main fresh vegetables in high demand during the off-season are tomatoes, cauliflower, cabbage, capsicum chilies and cucumber etc.Case StudyOrganic village in the country
The women framers of Thaligaon village have made commitment to establish the whole village as organic village by avoiding chemical fertilizer and pesticides. For this they have started getting training on organic management, use of compost and urine. The concept and initiation behind this case goes to DADO, Kathmandu who helped to link this program with FtF Nepal and developed a SOW to build cooperatives capacity, knowledge and technical know how about organic framing. Further a volunteer cooperation form FtF program enhanced strength to move further towards organic village.
Actually this is not the case of far remote village. This village is just 11 Kilometer from Kathmandu city and 25 minutes from the nearest road heads. With initiation from the women the cooperative with 28 members named Panchakanya Krishi Sahakari Sastha Ltd was established in early 2004 with awareness of and concerned about food safety and family health. The members of the cooperative particularly women were concerned of the health and financial benefit of organic framing and hence determined to grow their produce in organic way and establish as cooperatives.
With their commitments, major improvements took place in the village. Government supported to construct 10000-meter road to transport vegetables by providing NRs. 470,000(US $ 6714.00). Agriculture office provided organic training, developed resource person and provided continued backstopping. Likewise volunteer from FtF program provided expertise in organic framing and organic certification. FtF has also helped the cooperative to establish linkages between the "National Cooperative Development Board (NCDB) and the Department of Agriculture (DoA). Due to this the cooperative received NRs 100,000(US$ 1428.00) credit from NCDB to build a cooperative organic center in the village and construction is underway. NCDB also committed to support the cooperative through trainings and organizational development.
With all these support farmer of this village are confident to grow organic vegetables, they are aware of systematic management, can different to grow organic inorganic and capable of packaging, grading and marketing of organic vegetables, They have also made increase in income i.e. from NRs. 3000-4000(US$500.00 -700.00) 512 square meter before and NRs. 5000-7000(US $ 750.00- 1050.00) 512 square meter after organic management. Now they are also capable of providing input to other groups as a resource person.
Thus such type of commitment to be as organic grower will have positive impact on health, income, and the environment sector. The learning from this cooperative will be an example for sustainable production.Small Irrigation
I/NGO's working with IDE has demonstrated on a large scale the value of micro irrigation in allowing smallholders to control water resources enabling them to take advantage of market opportunity in horticulture /NTEP products. In Nepal I/NGO's promoted micro irrigation technologies including the treadle (foot) pump for the Terai and drip irrigation, sprinkler, and low cost water storage in the hills. These very low cost technologies were developed by partner IDE and are entirely produced by the private sector in Nepal. I/NGO's and IDE focus on developing the supply chain fro-micro irrigation equipment providing generic promotion that private sector suppliers cannot afford to initiate.
In the Nepali hills SIMI has identified the effectiveness if linking micro irrigation to small-scale community water development trough multi use piped water systems that supply water fro-domestic use, livestock, and micro irrigation. Nepal SIMI working with communities development 16 such systems in 3 hill districts. IDE -development water storage tank options have reduced the cost of these systems. Average costs for SIMI piped water systems were about $ 80.00 per household. In the hill micro irrigation users' first year returns exceeded $ 100.00 including equipment cost; this means that communities can recover the entire cost of their water system within one year.Research Programme
I/NGO's are maintaining its historical roots in agriculture research with active programs working the research community focused on linking research results to agro inputs supply chains for such products as pheromone traps, micronutrient applications, hybrid tomato seed development, soil solarization, hail stone protection, post harvest technologies, coffee pulpers, distilechnologies, and drying technologies.Sustainable Agriculture
I/NGO's projects are working to introduce IPM technologies into the supply chain and have developed certification systems for smallholder organic tea and aromatic oils. They have pioneered an effective approach to aggregating smallholder produce. Farmer groups establish marketing committees that develop collection centers. The centers have linkages with consumers and traders. Many management committees' members are women in including the treasurer and chairperson. These centers are now formal cooperative and are saving funds for in fracture.
Article name: Poverty Reduction Through The Local Level Environmental Sciences essay, research paper, dissertation