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Assignment Of Port Economics Environmental Sciences

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Environmental impact of development of ports all over the world cannot be denied. There are the vast of researches and projects studying about that. Concepts of Green port has been created and discussed in the view point of many parties, researchers, port authorities, legislation, government and other port stakeholders. From learning and collecting information and knowledge, this paper will analyses some implications in emergency of setting up and applying methods in managing green ports. It will present the general relationship between port and surrounding environment and effects that development of ports brings about. Through this scrutiny, we can find the answer for the question "Why do we need Green port?" and we can refer some models that some world's large ports are implementing to build Green port and manage environmental performance. They will be the best practices for other ports in the world.

Takes them as the best practices for project of building Green port in Lach Huyen in Haiphong, Vietnam

Key words: Developments, Ports, Sustainability, Green port, Environmental issues.

II. INTRODUCTION:

Shipping transportation is the vital factor in the human life and never before shipping transportation has developed and integrated as nowadays. The increasing in demands, development of global trade and revolution of containerization are main factors contributing the dramatically increasing of waterborne transportation. Insides, fleets and vehicles for ocean carriage and inland haulage have kept increasing to meet dramatically rise of needs in ocean carriage and inland haulage. Infrastructure and superstructure have been also continuously built up and strengthened to facilitate this high requirement. Ports, a critical element, therefore, are not staying out side of the process. Actually, ports have been developing in terms of economics of scale and economics of scope.

In the development process, in order to meet the getting higher requirements of transportation and industries, people are now in non-stop of building new ports and expanding the existing ones. It is obvious that the problems of maritime pollution is always associated with port and harbor activities such as the surrounding coastal habitats can be destroyed, the quantity of water for living can be declined during the port construction. Waste water, solid waste, waste oil and hazardous material leaks from both

Some obvious problems of marine pollution associated with port and harbor activities such as after-coastal habitats can be destroyed and the channel filled with silt due to road embankment construction and soil improvement, declining surface water quality can occur during construction and operation phase,

port operations

can produce waste water, solid waste and waste oil and hazardous material leaks

both from shore and boat, human health and aquatic life can be affected by

coastal water

There is no longer any doubt that the attractiveness of port activities and new investment project in the port area need to be assessed, not merely in terms of economic potential as measured from perspective of the port authority by for example impact on market share and growth rate, but also in terms of environmental impact. Hence. a port's sustainability implies an economics and environmental equilibrium.

This paper analyses some implications in emergency of setting up and applying methods in managing green ports. It will present the general relationship between port and surrounding environment and effects that development of ports brings about. Through this scrutiny, we can find the answer for the question "Why do we need Green port?" and "How port operators, port authorities and ports' main stakeholders of modern ports in the world are doing to build Green port and manage environmental performance". Takes them as the best practices for project of building Green port in Lach Huyen in Haiphong, Vietnam

will also be taken as a case study in this paper.

The high demand in transportation, especially containerization and its revolution have brought about the very strong motivation to speed up the development of the worldwide economy.

I. Why do we need Green port?

1. Port development and its environmental impact

Shipping and ports play essential roles in the international trade and goods movement. Maritime transport and port industry handles over 80 per cent of the volume of global trade and account for over 70 per cent of its value. In 2009, world seaborn trade exceeded 8 billion tons compared to 4 billions tons in 1990, 3.7 billion in 1980 and 2.6 billion tons in 1970. As the report of World Economic Situation and Prospects 2012 of UN, the global seaborne trade is expected to increase by 36 per cent in 2020 and to double by 2033. While bulk trade accounts for the largest share of global seaborne trade by volume, the containerized cargo contribution grew more than threefold between 1985 and 2010. At the same time, world container port throughput increased by an estimated 12.6 per cent, to 528.8 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs), in 2010 after stumbling briefly in 2009. Forecasts for 2011 and 2012 are for continued double-digit growth, strengthened by the resumption of many port expansion projects put on hold during the economic downturn.

At the same time ports with economic, industrial and logistics centers have contributed significantly to pollution in the surrounding environment, especially in coastal urban areas. Port can lead to severe pollution problem, over a large area due to the multifarious activities. The increase in emissions of air pollutants can affect local as well as regional air quality (Galloway 1989; Gupta et al. 2002; Rodhe 1989; Streets et al. 2000). With the increase in volume of shipping traffic into and within the region, sea-based pollution is also a source of concern, especially along heavily congested shipping routes (Chua 1995a, b). Oil and chemical spills from ships, either from operational activities or catastrophic accidents (i.e. grounding or collision), also cause health hazards.

There are thousands of ports and harbours located either in marine/estuarine zones or on rivers at inland sites far from the sea all over the world. Various port and harbour activities including dredging operations, materials disposal, shorezone development, increased maritime traffic and vehicular traffic in the port can results in the release of natural and anthropogenic contaminants to the environment. The pollution

problems usually caused by port and harbour activities can be categorized as follows:

1. Coastal habitats may be destroyed and navigational channels silted due to causeway construction and

land reclamation.

2. Unregulated mariculture activities in the port and harbour areas may threaten navigation safety.

3. Deterioration of surface water quality may occur during both the construction and operation phases.

4. Harbour operations may produce sewage, bilge wastes, solid waste and leakage of harmful materials both from shore and ships.

5. Human and fish health may be affected by contamination of coastal water due to urban effluent discharge.

6. Oil pollution is one of the major environmental hazards resulting from port/harbour and shipping

operations. This includes bilge oil released from commercial ships handling non-oil cargo as well as

the more common threat from oil tankers.

7. Air pollutant emissions due to ship emissions, loading and unloading activities, construction emission

and emissions due to vehicular movement.

Impact on surface water quality:

The construction of man-made structures and alteration of natural waters can lead to direct and indirect impacts on the water body and ecosystem. Deterioration in surface water quality can occur during both the construction and operation phases. During the construction phase, pollution may result from soil run off and sanitary waste from labour force. Dredging and reclamation result in the formation of plumes of suspended sediments around dredgers, reclamation outfalls and dumping grounds. Dredging and dredge spoil disposal activities for port development and maintenance can induce short- and long-term impacts on aquatic systems, namely degradation of marine resources such as beaches, estuaries, coral reefs and fisheries;

resuspension and settlement of sediments, portioning of toxic contaminants and reintroduction to the water column; contaminant uptake by and accumulation in fish and shellfish, increased turbidity causing decrease in light penetration and associated photosynthetic activity, short-term depletions of dissolved oxygen levels; modified bathymetry causing changes in circulation; possible saltwater intrusion to ground-water; inland surface water; altered species diversity and structure of benthic communities; fluctuations in water chemistry, changes in shoreline structure; loss of habitat and fisheries resources. Harbour operation can produce sewage, bilge wastes, solid waste, oil discharges and leakages of harmful materials both from shore and ships. Tens of thousands of chemicals are used to meet society's technological and economic needs. Many of these chemicals find their way into the marine environment; therefore, it is important to ascertain whether the complex mixtures of chemicals found in coastal waters are causing adverse biological effects on marine

organisms. There are two basic ways by which chemical contaminants can affect living marine resources: (1) by directly affecting the exposed organism's own health and survival, and (2) by contaminating those fisheries resources that other species, including humans, may consume.

Impact on air quality

Air quality in a port area can be affected by dust and particulates from traffic (resuspension of road dust), site

clearing, rock excavation and construction activity, and emissions from vehicles bringing materials to the site

and from ships and construction equipments. The photochemical reactions (complex chain reactions between sunlight and gaseous pollutants), emissions from burning waste materials and escaping dust (due to handling of fine-particulate materials such as fertilizers and minerals) are also major sources of air pollution in port areas. Air quality can also be affected by secondary developments such as urbanization and increased vehicular traffic.

Ship emissions are the main source of SO2 in port and harbour areas. Total emissions from major shipping

activities are estimated to be 236,000 tonne SO2 per year. Emissions from port activities account for about

4.5% of total shipping emissions, or 10,620 tonne SO2 per year (Streets et al. 1997). Generally, the cheapest

grades of residual oil, containing as much as 5% sulphur, are being used to fuel the commercial fleets. The

average sulphur content of marine fuel oils is about 2.8%. In 1997, the International Convention for the

Prevention of Pollution from Ships (commonly known as the MARPOL convention) approved a global cap of

4.5% on the sulphur content of marine fuel oils (Streets et al. 2000). A significant fraction of more than

10% of the global NOx production is emitted from ocean going ships burning fossil fuels (Lawrence and

Crutzen 1999).

Increased seaborne trade means more ships and increased risks of collisions, accidental and operational oil spills, air pollution and other threats to the environment. Shipping has a wide range of negative effects on the environment and the health of coastal populations. Well-known disasters with tankers like the Exxon Valdez (1989) Erika (1999) and Prestige (2001) come directly to mind. However, these accidents only form the tip of the shipping pollution iceberg:

• Most of the harmful emissions come from the daily operational release of various substances. Intentional and unintentional discharges of oil, chemical cargo residues, waste (often highly toxic), sewage, cleaning agents, anti-fouling paint, exhaust and other air emissions, and non-indigenous species from ballast water have an ongoing adverse impact.

The U.S. National Academy of Science (NAS) estimates that each year ships deliberately dump more than 6 million tons of garbage and release more than 600,000 tons of oil and oily wastes into the sea. Operational tanker oil discharges (i.e. dumping of oil during tank cleaning operations) form about 45% of the total ocean oil pollution in the world while ship and oil platform accidents contribute only 5% and 2% respectively. 4

• In 2007, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) assessed that the annual operational oil discharges of ships (fuel oil sludge, bilge oil and cargo-related discharges) exceeds 200 million tons. 5

• Recent studies indicate that the emission of CO2, NOx, and SO2 by ships correspond to about 3 to 4%, 10 to 15%, and 4 to 9% of global anthropogenic emissions, respectively. 6

• According to the latest study of IMO, shipping is estimated to have emitted 1,046 million tons of CO2 in 2007 - this corresponds to 3.3% of the global emissions during 2007. Exhaust gases are the primary source of emissions from ships. Mid-range emissions scenarios show that, by 2050, in the absence of policies, CO2 emissions of shipping may grow by 150% to 250% (compared to the emissions in 2007) as a result of the growth in shipping. 7

• The above IMO study also reveals that other pollutants from shipping are rising even faster than CO² emissions. Sulphur and soot emissions, which give rise to lung cancers, acid rain and respiratory problems, are expected to rise more than 30% over the next 12 years.

Impacts on human health

Impacts on human health can be broadly categorized as:

1. Hazards/accidents both onshore and offshore from handling of hazardous materials such as flammables,

explosives and toxics from vessel collisions

2. Communicable diseases

3. Noise from construction equipment/activity, vehicles, cargo handling equipment and ship and port public

address systems/sirens

4. Respiratory illness from escaping dust and particulates. Most health impacts (except communicable diseases) will generally be confined to the immediate port vicinity/work environment. Occupational health programmes should be established and provisions should be made for adequate medical emergency services.

• The health effects of air pollutants caused by shipping and port activities to residents of local communities include asthma, other respiratory diseases, cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and premature mortality. Shipping-related particulate matter (PM) emissions are responsible for approximately 60,000 cardiopulmonary and lung cancer deaths annually, with most deaths occurring near coastlines in Europe, East Asia, and South Asia. Under current regulation and with the expected growth in shipping activity, it is estimated that annual mortalities could increase by 40% until 2012.

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Major sources of these adverse effects can be categorized into three types: (a) location

of port; (b) construction; and (c) port operation, including ship traffic and discharges, cargo

handling and storage, and land transport. Location of port connotes the existence of

structures or landfills, and the position of the development site. Construction implies

construction activities in the sea and on land, dredging, disposal of dredged materials, and

transport of construction materials. Port operation includes ship-related factors such as

vessel traffic, ship discharges and emissions, spills and leakage from ships; and cargo-related

factors such as cargo handling and storage, handling equipment, hazardous materials,

waterfront industry discharges, and land transport to and from the port.

Environmental facets to be considered in relation to port development are categorized

into nine groups: (a) water quality; (b) coastal hydrology; (c) bottom contamination; (d) marine

and coastal ecology; (e) air quality; (f) noise and vibration; (g) waste management; (h) visual

quality; and (i) socio-cultural impacts.

Due to historical reasons, most ports co-exist with urban settlements. The exploitation of good

natural port locations has triggered the establishment of communities both for civilian trade and as

strategic strongholds for national states.

The ports needed numerous services like for instance supplies, workforce and administration, while

creating values such as trade and employment. The presence of an efficient port has always been a

strong catalyst for societal development.

Today, the interaction between ports and cities does not require the closeness of earlier centuries.

Synergies still exist, of course, but ports no longer need large workforces, and the availability of

modern transportation and communication makes it possible to distribute many other functions.

However, the historical record of large ports growing from small as well as large cities stemming

from smaller settlements, means that major ports and large cities still occupy common or adjacent

locations. This naturally has lead to collisions of interests with continued growth in both sectors.

Today the presence of an active port inside a city is often considered a nuisance. Many older

centrally located port surroundings are being redeveloped for other uses.

What's more, ports and cities frequently share the same land infrastructure. There are of course

efficiency gains in this double usage but also considerable scope for conflicts and controversy.

As a port expands it tends to move out from the central position in a city to peripheral locations.

So far most ports have been able to relocate major activities outside the city centres, sometimes in

more than one step.

However, the increasing area needs of port and terminal operations have now reached a level where

conflicts with recreational and environmental interests are becoming common. The importance of

shoreline and shallow water organisms to the whole environment has only recently been fully

appreciated.

The preservation of an adequate amount of wetlands, sands, reefs, etc., is vital to assure a fully

functioning ecosystem. At the same time the value of the coast for recreation is obvious and this

puts additional pressure on port development near major population centres.

The typical pattern of port expansion and possible areas of conflict are demonstrated in Figure 1.

3

City

Port

Sensitive

Areas

Figure 1. Pattern of port expansion and possible areas of conflict.

Landfills are often used to increase the available areas for port operations. The ecological effects of

landfills, however, have not been fully understood until recently. Most effects of landfills are of a

local nature but wide scale intrusion into ecologically sensitive areas may lead to more global effects

through the damage of key links in the overall ecosystem.

The presence of a port also leads to a concentration of land transport with trucks and trains. This

frequently leads to overload of the land infrastructure and disturbances to nearby urban and

residential areas

The most important environmental effects related to ports may be summarised as:

• Effects on sensitive near-shore ecosystems (ex shallow water fish breeding areas).

• Influence from dredging and earthworks on currents and circulation.

• Influence on water runoff and ground water.

• Reduction of wetlands as nitrogen traps.

• Soil contamination.

• Release of pollutants deposited in sediments.

• Emissions to air from port and transport activities.

• Emissions to water from port and transport activities.

• Accidental spills from cargo, of bunker oil and other fluids from ships.

• Noise.

• Visual "pollution" (scenery, night lighting).

A more comprehensive summary of the environmental impact of port activities can be found in

Trozzi and Vaccaro (2000). Most of the effects are local in character but the size and concentration

of some European ports may lead to effects also on a regional magnitude.

4

One of the findings of the SUTRANET project (Work Package 2, Motorways of the North Sea, Task

1.1, report on "Major Intermodal Ports in the North Sea Region"), is that just three geographical

areas account for 90% of the North Sea Region intermodal/unitised (container and RoRo) traffic

(Haven/Humber, Rhine/Scheldt and Elbe/Weser), and may dominate intermodal maritime traffic

flows in the region even more in the future, which "raises questions regarding the sustainability of current

and future transport provision and in particular the very high degree of concentration within relatively few

sensitive estuarial areas in northern Europe".

At the same time the European Commission has identified waterborne transportation as an

important element to enable continued growth of the European economy simultaneously

promoting sustainability of European freight transport. For instance, everything else put equal,

maritime freight transport is roughly between two and three times more energy efficient than road

freight transport, thus emitting half to one third of CO2 per weight unit cargo and unit distance

transported compared to road transport. The port infrastructure is the key to the expansion of

waterborne transportation, but also the likeliest bottleneck.

A challenge for the future is to find solutions that may accommodate increased activity in the

land/sea transfer while at the same time minimizing the environmental and societal impacts.

Examples of activities:

Increasing environmental awareness create new challenges for the development of ports. In addition, climate change calls for adaptation measures that aim at minimizing impacts of e.g. rising sea levels and increased flood water heights but safeguard accessibility of ports and waterways and also safeguard future sustainability for the social and natural environmental conditions.

International and national legislation for new ports or extensions of existing ports are incorporating these issues and are increasingly based on strict regulations aiming at creating designs with minimized environmental impact and sustainable operations in the long-term. The regulations are enforced through a system of permits in which certain construction and operation methods are predefined including (large-scale) mitigation and compensation measures.

In many cases, the environmental issues and (long-term) impacts of port construction and operation are unknown during the planning and design stages of the port. Assumptions may be made on the basis of worst case scenarios, leading to associated mitigation measures. Furthermore, proposed environmental and sustainability measures in the various planning studies and provided permits are new and have not been tested to their full potential nor is their effectiveness monitored in the field.

Green Ports are widely regarded as 'the answer' to the above mentioned challenges. However, there is no clear and comprehensive description of what a Green Port actually is. Environmental Issues of Ports have been studied in great detail before, but there is a need for a step forward towards an integrated approach in which all separate measures, including climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, are merged into the concept of a single package: the Green Port.

A practical guide for a sustainable seaportPIANC WG 150ENVICOMII. What is Greenport concept

Living through centuries and suffering from environmental problems coming to real life. The human are now gradually aware of the serious impact of changes in environment such as natural disasters, Green Effect, Act-of-God. Consequently, port development cannot stand outside of the rules. That's why, Port operators and authorities are trying to build, arrange and develop port to be friendly with the surrounding. From that reason, the concept of Greenport has been given and become a critical condition and concern for all port authorities and legislation organizations. It seems to be the answer for challenges of environmental impacts in port development. However, there is no clear and comprehensive description of what a Green Port actually is. In the study of the world association of waterborne Transportation Infrastructure, PIANC mentioned "Issues of Ports have been studied in great detail before, but there is a need for a step forward towards an integrated approach in which all separate measures, including climate change adaptation and mitigation measures, are merged into the concept of a single package: the Green Port". There is another idea given by Consultancy and Engineering Corporation DHV: "Green ports are ports that are maintained and operated in a sustainable way. They aim at conserving and, where possible, enhancing the quality of the surrounding environment. This ranges from the creation of healthy living and working conditions in and around the port area, to nature development as compensation for new port areas." In short, Greenport concept is always associated with concept of sustainability. It not only regards to the internal operation and management of a port but the surrounding society. The concepts of 3P's (Profit/Prosperity, Planet and People), 3E's (Economy, Environment, Social Equity) and even 3C's of sustainable (Collaboration, Cultural Change and Competitive Edge) are also popular in the concern of doing Green port projects nowadays.

III. How ports in the world to do for a green port

Achieving a green port status requires investment in port operation as well as in mind-set. The investment is not in short term, temporarily but it takes time and money to implement projects and policies.

For existing ports, the importance is to create the positive "greening" motivation from operating clean ports to including nature and environmental issues from the beginning of the planning and engineering stages, to study how to adapt to new laws and legislation, and of course to try to minimize the negative impacts on the ongoing operation during the transforming from existing port into green port.

For new ports and industrial areas, the plans and designs should keep port in the centre of sustainable practices and procedures while keeping cost under control.

It is critical for ports to take into account the know-how to tackle aspects of green ports and port operations. For instance, Clean and safe shipping; Water- and soil quality and nature development (flora and fauna, nature reserves); Community involvement and improvement of outdoor space and environment (quality of life, recreation, education); Energy and recycling (cost efficiency, cradle-to-cradle, onshore electricity); Sustainable transport (clean fuel, electric equipment); Environmental management of operations, dredging, maintenance, port activities. (According to Consultancy and Engineering Corporation DHV)

Due to the complication to implements green port projects, actually, not many ports in the world can determine to build sustainable ports. However, impacts of port activities in environment are not in the concerns of only port authorities but of various port stakeholders: 1. Port authorities, -administrators, -operators and/or -financers including representatives and organisations. 2. Port users (shipping, logistics). 3. Port planners (consultants, engineers). 4. Port legislation (governmental- and regional authorities). 5. Other port stakeholders, including contractors and non-profit organisations. Because when failing to consider the environment impact, strategic port decisions and actions could potentially negatively affect the ability of the port to compete relative to others in the range, at least if "environmental performance" really counts (Haezendonck, 2001). Stakeholder influences, or at least the neglect of the potential impact, have recently caused some serious delays in the realization of port projects, such as capacity expansion projects. Literature contributions on the importance of pro-actively take into account environment issues and externalstakeholders (Dooms and Verbeke, 2005, Winkelman and Notteboom, 2005 and Coek, Merkx and Verbeke, 2006).

In the need of balance economic benefit and environmental impacts, world's largest ports with huge impacts on the environment acknowledge the necessary of a green port for their existing, competing and developing. Sustainability is now mentioned and committed to implement in Mission statements and strategic plans of these ports. For example,

Port of Rotterdam: "The Port of Rotterdam Authority develops, in partnership, the world-class European port… We continuously improve the port of Rotterdam, to make it the most efficient, safe and sustainable port in the world." (Rotterdam port Authority)

Port of Antwerp: "The Port Authority needs to carry out pioneering work regarding lasting port developments and is promoting environmentally friendly modes of transport for the carriage of goods to and from the hinterland" (Antwerp port Authority)

Port of Los Angeles: "To provide our customers with the world's most secure and advanced seaport facilities to stimulate the economy and attract business, while promoting a sustainable "grow green" philosophy and embracing evolving technology." (The port of LA Strategic plan 2010/2011)

Port of Shanghai : Greenport Shanghai is the innovative and ambitious exploration of how Chinese metropolitan agriculture will jump into the 21st century: circular, sustainable and profitable. (Greenport Shanghai Agropark, 2008)

PSA in Singapore (Green Initiative) "We aims to improve it impact on the environment in a sustainable manner with the goal of contributing to the greener society… We seek to change the way we operate in a sustainable manner at our terminals and facilities and proactively identify and adopt environmentally-friendly port equipment and practices" (PSA Green Initiative, 2010)

Besides ports, port organizations and associations also do their effort for the clean and green environment. For instance, (1) International Association of Ports and Harbors (IAPH) focused in their mission "Promote and demonstrate IAPH members' leadership and commitment to a cleaner, safer and more environmentally sustainable industry for the benefit of the global community." (2) ESPO, European Seaport Organization stated "ESPO's mission is to influence public policy in the EU in order to achieve a safe, efficient and environmentally sustainable European port sector, operating as a key element of a transport industry where free and undistorted market conditions prevail, as far as practicable."

In order to actualize missions and strategies, they need tools and methods to deal with environmental issues. According to Michael Dooms and Elvira Haezendonck in the research of " AN EXTENSION OF 'GREEN PORT PORTFOLIO ANALYSIS' TO INLAND PORTS", "If society, governments or stakeholders want ports managers to actually take into account environmental port performance into their strategic decisions, they also need tool for strategy formulation that combines economic and environmental performance elements." "Some recent literature and reports focus on the strategic implementation tools to reduce the impact of port processes, eg. prevention ,instrument such as EIA, curative tools such as EMS, quality guideline such as EMAS (Hens 2004), or develop new tools or approach for environmental management in ports such as the Port Environment Review System (PERS) and EMIS (Environment Management Information System), both developed by ECOPORT (EU funded project ECOPORT, 2006)." In the research, Michael Dooms and Elvira Haezendonck judged that these instruments are helpful for to manage environmental performance but they mostly do not approach to the impacts of port's "product"., for example, the externalities of hinterland traffic generated by traffic volume handle in port. They developed Green port portfolio by measuring the environmental harm directly caused by port's activities on wider geographic regions, calculating external cost in relationship with ton-kilometers transport created by each port for each transport mode in particular year. This research analyzed environmental performance of a range of eight inland ports in Western Europe and expected to provide a practical and relevant tool to analyse the green performance of ports.

Actually, each port chooses for itself a tool and a policy to implement a sustainable port. Modern ports in the world now are very proactive and determine for the green port as a part of their strategy in development and increasing competitive advantages. Taking the Green port policy of Port of Los Angles, United State, we can see what they set up and implement.

The port of Los Angles is known as the busiest container port and a leader among ports in promoting cleaner technologies and reducing air emissions. With leadership comes responsibility, and they are firmly committed to international leadership in adopting sustainable practices while maintaining the role as a national economic engine. Though the Port has experienced the impacts of the global economic downturn, they have started to recover and are on a long-term growth trajectory. Our grow green philosophy enables us to expand operations in the most environmentally and socially responsible manner possible, and our accomplishments over the past few years demonstrate our commitment to sustainability.

(1) On July 18, 2007, Mayor Villaraigosa issued Executive Directive No. 10, Sustainable Practices in the City of Los Angeles. This directive sets forth his vision to transform Los Angeles into the most sustainable large city in the country. The Los Angeles Harbor Department, one of three proprietary departments of the City, operates the Port of Los Angeles (Port). The Port is committed to helping achieve this vision by transforming the Port of Los Angeles into the greenest port in the world, where environmental protection, economic prosperity, and social justice co-exist.The Executive Directive identifies eight goals in the areas of energy and water, procurement,

contracting, waste diversion, non-toxic product selection, air quality, training, and public outreach.

(2) Port of Los Angles set up the Vision and Mission for sustainable port:

Vision: To be North America's largest container port and the global model for sustainability.

Mission: We are America's Port - a dynamic economic engine that facilitates the efficient movement of cargo and leads the global maritime industry in reliability, economic prosperity, environmental stewardship, and social responsibility. (2011 Draft Strategic Plan)

(3) Set up team structure: The Port has established an internal Port Sustainability Team for

development and implementation of a Sustainability Plan and Program.

Sustainability Program Team Structure

(4) Create process for implementation:

Sustainability Process Cycle

(5) Self evaluate the current situation and define the gap with the goals

(5) Define tops issues of the port and choose the sustainability programs and policy for Green port implementation and management. (Sustainability Related Programs and Policies Addressing the Top Material Issues for the Port in Port of Los Angeles Sustainability Report 2011)

(6) Evaluate the performance and do annual report (Port of Los Angeles Sustainability Report 2011)

(7) Evaluate the ability of implementation of applicable programs / policies after a year (Port of Los Angeles Sustainability Report 2011)

From all attempts above, port of Los Angles are making an important steps in dialogue with Port stakeholders regarding the process in achieving green growth to enhancing the port's images and competitive advantages and becoming a global model for port sustainability.

2005200620072008200920107.58.58.47.86.77.8

The Triple Bottom Line refers to broadening the

traditional bottom line perspective for evaluating

business performances that is focused solely on financial

performance to take into account the environmental and

social impacts associated with business activities.

-John Elkington, co-founder of the UK-based consultancy SustainAbility

Article name: Assignment Of Port Economics Environmental Sciences essay, research paper, dissertation