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Sustainability In Hammarby Sjostad Environmental Sciences

Essay add: 27-11-2017, 18:47   /   Views: 8

Hammarby Sjöstad is eco-friendly district in Stockholm. Through utilization of new environmental friendly technology, urban design and renewable energy, at present the city is very close towards the sustainability. A common eco-cycle model named 'The Hammarby Model' is designed to ensure organic waste products recycling throughout the Hammarby Sjöstad. The model defines the entire environmental system and integration of different energy supply system. The study is focused on mainly how the whole models works with different integration systems in the environment aspects, sustainable development and industrial ecoloy approach.

Introduction

Hammarby Sjöstad is very ambitious housing project in Stockholm and regarded as the environment friendly solution of Sweden. This is one of the best and outstanding developments towards sustainability in the world. In Hammarby Sjöstad plans integrated with eco/cycle model and environmental program aspect. The goals of the Hammarby development project is to reduce total impact on the environmental aspects by half compared to similar developed cities and also recycling all waste water and waste products into renewable energy source (Pruitt, 2009).

Aims and objectives

This study is aimed to obtain practical knowledge about sustainable technology and development with different systems of energy and material flow promoting sustainable environment.

The main objectives of the case study of the Hammarby Sjöstad are:

To identify environmental aspects of the district

To investigate the energy sources and consumption

To examine the urban planning and design

To figure out the influences from the inhabitants

To make relation with an industrial approach.

Background StudyLocation and Population

This place is located in Sodertalje Kommun of Stockholms Lan in Sweden. It is situated in the geographical coordinates between 59° 17' 0" North and 17° 27' 0" East. The area consists of about 250 hectares of land.

The Hammarby Sjöstad has planned to provide 11,000 residential units for 25,000 people. A total 35,000 people will stay for living and working purpose in the area. Stockholm City Council, Fortum, Stockholm Water Company and Stockhom Waste management Authority plans together to build this city with defferent developers.

History of the city

The Hammarby area was first built due to the demand of developing an industrial area in 1917. In that time small and some large scale industries were established with the harbour activities. Both the harbour activities and unplanned industries caused to high pollution and contaminated area. During the 1990s, the growing demand of housing required to make a reestablishment of this city for a new residential development. Still that time the businesses were prospering. After having several plans with different settled companies, in 1996 and 1997 the initial plan was changed to support for bidding for Olympic Games 2004 host city. For this purpose and ambitious goal was set following 'twice (double) as good'. Unfortunately Stockholm was unable to be host city for Olympic Games. But it was a good initiative for planning Hammarby city and the environmental goal and developing a sustainable city plan was kept and further redeveloped. The initial target to build this building to make sure comfortable housing with lake view sight, beautiful natural landscape and recreational places, well communicated road and transportation system close to the Central Stockholm. Until today half of the city is developed and the whole project will be complete within 2016.

Methodology

The methodology of the study contains three aspects:

A field study to the Hammarby sjöstad district

A field visit was carried out in 14 September, 2010 at Hammarby Sjöstad. An introduction lecture was organized by the infocenter 'GlasshusETT'. The lecture was focused on the history, development and different planning scenario of sustaianblity of the district. There was a field visit with group after the lecture to visit the different system of the Hammarby Model practically.

Group discussion

As the project work is divided into different groups, different tasks were distributed among the group members and coordinate all together to finalize the report. There were several group meetings were arranged prior to submit this report.

Literature Review

The whole case study was carried out by the supplied reading materials. Besides library works with relevant field provide special knowledge about sustainable environment and city planning. Internet sources also play a vital role for data and information collection.

Questions ReviewEnvironmental Aspects of the Hammarby Sjöstad

The methodology to define the most important factors, are based on the urban ecosystem assessment. The urban ecosystems satisfy human demands by acting as a source for resources and a sink for waste (Meirong et al, 2010). As ecosystem, to a large extent, the most important environmental aspects of the Hammarby Sjöstad district are the waste, energy and water system. The priority list is given below:

Waste as resource:

Nowadays wastes are considered as resources if it managed and followed by environmental solutions. In hammarby Sjöstad waste

Eco-friendly energy

District heating and colling system mainly gets energy from the production of domestic wastes. Solar cells, solar panels and fuel cells installed to provide the energy required for public area.

Less water cleaner sewage

The initial goal of the Hammarby Sjöstad is to reduce water consumption by 50%. Eco-friendly installation with consumption level of water makes it different by reducing the stress of water demand load. Cleaner sewage is treated and reused on agricultural land. Biogas from sewage sludge is produced. Storm water of street ensures decontamination rate as it treated locally and then discharge into Hammarby sjö. Green roofs with sedum plants adsorb rain water without mixing it to the lake.

Eco-design and construction material

The design of the building infrastructure and its construction materials are healthy and environment friendly.

Transpotation system

Well communication system through ferry, SL bus, and tram system has connected with the major areas of the city with the central Stockholm. Private vehicle car pool system and wide cycle lane and foot path plays an important role to reduce green house gas.

Balanced ecosystem

To have a balanced ecosystem, there are two ecoducts are installed covering with vegetation.

Reserve forest and recreation place

The parks and forest in the city also plays an important role of the urban system for following reason:

The forest and parks serve as footpaths for residents, but also for corridor for animals and plants.

Green space could be compensated for in form of biotopes that benefit the biological diversity in the immediate area.

Energy Sources of the Hammarby

Several kinds of energy are used in Hammarby city area: electricity, heat, fuel. The electricity is provided both by the national grid and by the Högdalen's combined heat and power plant. The electricity of the grid comes from outside of the district. The fuel source of the power plant is combustible waste. Those wastes are composed by food, packaging and paper waste.

The heat use in the district heating comes from the Hammarby heat plant and the Högdalen plant. The Hammarby heat plant is powered by the biofuel produced by the organic waste and the water waste of the district. The heating system for the entire Hammarby area is supplied from 2 sources:

Energy recovery from waste incineration

Energy recovery from waste water treatment process

Energy source in:

Hogdalan heat and power plant.

Hammarby heat plant

Biofuel from nature

Solar energy

Drinking water plant/ lake Mälaren

Sjöstaden's and Henriksdal's waste water treatment plant

Energy source out:

electric / biogas vehicles

Purified waste water to the sea

Treated storm water through lake Hammarby Sjö

Different System Borders within the Flow Model

The Hammarby model defines different system borders through it differnt material flow. The three main systems contain and control all these flow. These are describes below:

Energy system

Biofuel from nature is converted into district heating and electricity

District heating system and electricity is converted from combustible waste

Treated wastewater converted into district heating and electricity

Solar energy is converted into electrical energy and heating water.

Water and Sewage system

Biogas is produced from the sewage sludge

Residual from biogas production, the biosolids is used for agriculture as fertilizer

Rainwater from roofs either adsorbs by green roofs or drained into Hammarby Sjö

Storm water from street is treated and then drained into Hammarby Sjö.

Lake Mälaren provides the supply water of the district.

Waste system

Auomatic waste disposal system is installed

Combustible waste is converted into heating and electricity of the district

Biosolids are produced from organic wastes and used as fertilizer

All recyclable materials are recycled.

The energy system of the hammarby model is really a good example for promoting sustainability and probably the best system. For each single detail uses of energy is conserdered for the user consumption. Producing of heat and electricity from the combustible wastes is important which can reduce the stress of demand of the electricity supply. Biofuel is used for heating and electricity purpose as well as fuel in public transport. Solar energy is also introduced for energy production though it is not suitable with the Swedish climate condition and expensive process. But the effort for utilizing every single advantage from the nature without hampering environment provides the city extra ordinary value for energy consumption aspects. All the electricity is considered as 'Good environmental choice' labeled and eco-friendly. The waste and water system is also important and has similar management in other developed cities but the energy consumption and flow system of Hammarby district makes itself distinct and role model for others.

Energy Consumption

To calculate the entire energy consumption of the district, it is necessary to identify all the energy entities and its consumer such as house, office, transport etc. Then it is calculated the quantity of energy (electricity, heat, sun radiation, waste, food, fuel) for all the entities consuming. Another way is only to consider the energy entering through the border of the district but doing this the energy coming from inner sources (or energy transformation) of the district will be omitted. But this energy is also consumed. To have the largest approach the energy used to build and dismantle the district must also been taken in account. The energy consumption goal within 2015 was fixed during the time of the rebuilt of Hammarby Sjöstad.

Table 1. Energy Consumption Goal Set

Energy Use

Kwh / m2

Heating &electricity, initial goal (2000)

60

Heating &electricity, updated goal (2005)

100

Achieved heating &electric, best 2006 regulations for new building (BBR), goal

110

(Source: www.secureproject.org)

The high energy targets did not fulfil its goal. The measurement data is not available to the public. For the water consumption, the main target was set to access 100 l/person/ day and during the period from July 2006 to July 2007, the average consumption was 141,9 l/person/day. Though the goal was not achieved still it was better than other area while in Stockholm on average consumption is 200 l/ person/day (www.secureproject.org).

The initial goals for energy were set to 60 KWh/m2 which was updated to 100 KWh/m2 in 2005 (Table 1). Biogas products, RES and reuse of waste heat coupled with energy consumption efficiently in buildings. About 23000 tons sludge treated with the production of 3,500,000 m3 biogas (www.hammarbysjostad.se/glashusett).

The best performance was achieved so far from two multifamily building blocks, holmen and Grynnan, where PV cells were installed in facades, balconies and windows with the total peak power 46 KW and production 32 MWh. The amount of produced energy is used to need of 70% of the energy for refrigerator and freezer.

An energy balance equation is often used for calculating energy consumption which can be implemented here

Where Ein is the energy that flows in to the system, Prod is produced energy, Eout is the energy that flow out from the system and Ack is the accumulated energy in the system.

Local Inhabitants' Influences

With the increasing population and economic growth of the Hammarby Sjöstad, there is an inevitable influence by the residents of the district. As the district has well developed transportation system including different foot path and bicycle lane. Private car using is not encouraged here. So about 80% of the residents and workers are using public transport, bicycle or on foot. Thus they are playing a significant role to reduce traffic load and fossil fuel consume to ensure the pollution free environment. The eco-friendly car of car pool system provides the personal demand of having car in urgent period.

The inhabitants of the city is well known about the waste management and they do their respect about sorting of wastes until today and finally to realise it ethier automatic vacuum system or hand over the hazardous waste to GlashusEtt waste collection point. Thus they are playing an important role to reduce the energy loss for sorting waste as well as to recycle it for producing biogas.

The water consumption of the area is 100 to 140 l/person/day whereas otherpart of Stockholm inhabitants use 200 l/person/day. The consumption way of water use reveals about their consciousness about sustainability. The low flush system of the toilet, washing machines and dish washers, air mixer taps is installed for eco-friendly environment compare to those of Stockholm city or other cities.

The imhabitants response with any acitivities or campaign organized for the eco-friendly environment. For example, in 2005 a campaign organized against the use of bactericide triclosan, a hazardous substance used in toothpaste. After the campaign the analysis of triclosen was found with smaller amount compare to previous time.

Sustainable Urban Planning and DesignDesign for Sustainability

At the planning and designing of the city, the first priority was given to promote sustainability of the environment without hamering the nature. The optimization of the resources and the coordination of different energy systems with high tech sustainable technology make its goal closer and easier.

Eco-design

The main focus of the industrial ecology is sustainable development and environment by optimising the utilization of natural resources. The life cycle of the products and resources and its technical systems defines the sustainability of industrial society. The design of the building infrastructure and its construction materials are environment friendly. Fuel cells and the building double-gazed façade enhance the eco-design of the building.

Green Roofs

Most of the buildings roofs are designed as green roofs covering in stonecrop or sedum plants. This special eco design not only brings the attraction but also has sustainable impacts. The plants on the roof protect drain to sewers by adsorbing rain water.

Vacuum system for solid waste and refuse sorting

The solid domestic wastes fractions are sorted and collected through an underground waste collection system. The waste is collected in the underground room through vacuum suction, one fraction at a time. The containers in the underground are collected without lorries that reduce vehicle traffic in the area. It also avoids workers to carry heavy load. Hazardous wastes are collected in GlasshusEtt building.

Construction materials

All the materials used for the construction was considered for environmental perspective. For example, the visible materials for façade and on the ground of the building, materials used inside the building shell, all the equipments and installation process are tested as sustainable, healthy, dry and eco-friendly products.

Solar panels and Cells

In some of the buildings solar panel has installed to heat the water system of the entire building which reduces the energy consumption from the central source. Some building is designed with the solar cells in which sun light is harnessed and produces electric energy. A single solar cell system consists of one square meter can provide 100 kWh/yr. This amount is equivalent to 3 square meter of household energy.

Storm water from street

Storm water (rain water, snowmelt water) from the street is collected, purified and released into Hammarby Canal. For purification sand filters and artificial filter wetland is used. Storm water also infiltrated in to the ground or drain to Sickla Canal, Hammarby Canal or Danvik Canal.

Storm water Drainage

Channel is constructed to receive rain water from surrounding houses and gardens via drainage system. This channel water also enhances the beautification of the area. The water then runs to Basins named 'equiliser' and finally to the lake.

Biogas

All the domestic organic waste and sludge are used to produce biogas. Biogas is used for the cooking purpose in the area and also as fuel in eco-friendly cars and busses. A single household can produce such amount of waste materials that can provide sufficient amount of biogas for gas cooker. Biogas is the most environment friendly and sustainable form of fuel at present.

Communication System

Hammarby Sjostad has eco friendly communication system and energy saving vehicles. Private cars are not encouraged here. Well communication system through 'Tvärbanan' tram, buses, ferry, car pool etc has less environmental impact in the transportation system reducing traffic load as well as consuming without fossil fuel.

Heating and Cooling System

Domestic wastes are used as energy source in the heat and power plant which is used to circulate district heating and cooling system in Hammarby Sjöstad.

Ecoduct

It is the most innovative and efficient solution to keep biodiversity and ecosystem without any disturbance. In this district two ecoducts are installed covering with vegetation. This two wide bridges connects two different side of the road in such a way that animals can move without having problem due to wide road and traffic system.

Industrial Ecology Approach

All the eco-friendly urban planning and design promotes the sustainability towards industrial ecology approach. Since 1917, it has been developing as an industrial area that had led to a higher pollution rate of the area including soil, water and air. The whole environment became unhealthy and threat to the inhabitants. After rebuilding the city, until today it is one of the environment friendly sustainable cities of the world. So the design and planning has a great role to achieve this goal. The land usages converted from old brownfield sites to attractive residential areas with lot of recreational places including green public spaces. The energy used in the city is from the renewable fuels and biogas produced from the domestic waste. All the building has efficient energy consumption. Water supply is maintained with the standard high quality with new technology and reuse of water and sewage after treating with maximum level and released into nearby canals. The possible maximum recycling system is introduced for the domestic wastes with the latest automatic vacuum. Transportation of the city is also considered for the sustainable environment and less fuel consumption rate. It has fast, attractive transport system including ferry, car pools, eco-friendly car, foot and cycle path encouraging reduce of private car usages. All the materials used for the construction of the building are healthy and environment friendly. Soil decontamination and ecoducts ensure biodiversity of local vegetation and insects. Now this city is regarded as the decontaminated area announced by the Stockholm's Environment and Health Administration. All these facilities and sustainable development of the Hammarby Sjöstad promotes the industrial ecology approach ensuring the following criteria:

Industrial metabolism

Eco-design

Dematerialization and decarbonisation

Industrial sysmbiosis

Eco-industrial park

Eco-efficiency

Pollution control

Reuse, Recovery and Recycling

Waste minimisation

Cleaner production and clean Technology

Life cycle and environmental impact assessment

Integrated planning, innovative eco-solutions and technologies.

Discussions

To build an environment friendly housing project it is necessary to focus and consider many different aspects that influences the environment. Hammarby Sjöstad project tried to bring concentration to every single issue. It was not easy to rebuild a highly contaminated unplanned city into a developed and totally uncontaminted and pollution free city. Hammarby Sjöstad provides a unique example of waster management and biogas production. The modern technology of vacuum system makes easier to control waste management and refuse carrying vehicle that reduce traffic load and fuel. The best production comes through the organic wastes producing biogas which is used for cooking purpose of the buildings. Combustible wastes are used to produce energy at Högdalan combined heat and powerplant as a source of the power generation and heating system of the district. Private vehicle car pool system and wide cycle lane and foot path plays an important role to reduce green house gas. All the households are equipped with low flushing toilet to reduce water consumption. Hammarby Sjöstad introduce a unique and different system to collect storm water and rain water in the street and to treat it before releasing it to the lake while it is not considered in any other city letting storm water directly release to lake. However, all the construction materials used for building up this city are healthy, dry and environmentally sound. Energy consumption procedure also enhances the sustainability of the city using renewable energy. From the above discussion on this case study of Hammarby Sjöstad, it can be easily recommended for building any sustainable city to consider following major criteria:

Eco-design for the city considering environmental impacts during its whole life cycle

Eco-efficiency following maximum use of ferenewable wer resources and creating less waste and pollution

Introducing industrial metabolism

Eco-industrial park attempt to reduce waste and pollution by sharing resources efficiently cooperating with business and local community

Ensure industrial symbiosis

Conclusions

It is said that developing cities always destroy the natural environment but in the case of Hammarby Sjöstad totally become different. Allready the city is proved its achievement towards sustainability without hampering the natural environment as well as pollution and contamination free area. The city provides the best technology with integrated environmental solutions. Though the city has long way to prove itself as a real sustainable city, still it can be regarded as a role model of real estate development in industrial ecology approach.

Article name: Sustainability In Hammarby Sjostad Environmental Sciences essay, research paper, dissertation