In considering the application for the Certificate of Environmental Clearance (CEC) of the housing development, the Environmental Management Authority (EMA) determined that it was necessary to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in compliance with a Terms of Reference (ToR). The ToR will serve as a guide for the conduct of the EIA and the preparation of an EIA Report. This is necessary to understand the nature of the project, potential impacts and mitigation measures. Every attempt...
A survey carried out by HR Wallingford (2003a) shows that the quality of SUDS ponds has a direct impact on public perception of SUDS. Well established ponds are generally welcomed by the public, they have positive impact on property price and sales. However, poorly constructed ponds will lead to drop in saleability. These are factors to be considered during SUDS planning. HR Wallingford (2003b) states that increased human activities can cause serious damages to the ecological system, especially...
In the era of the laptop, have you ever wondered about what happened to all these good old desktop computers ? The reality is that the industry is constantly seducing us with new gadgets that are supposed to give us a more convenient and satisfying life. And we buy it! Electronic devices have become such an important part of our everyday life that we do not seem to be able to live without it. The downside is that they tend to age really quickly. As a matter of fact, the newest digital equipment...
Job availability in environmental engineering industry varies over time based on government policies, priorities, populations and funding (SCCC). Engineers work in a wide variety of industries, holding different positions that involve in wastewater treatment, mining, air pollution control, facilities planning and consulting (SCCC). Many are employed as consultants by government agencies and research firms. Others work for private companies, dealing with toxic chemical leakage and system design....
This chapter asks the question: "If there is a green technology project to tackle a local issue: What would the issue be? Which green technology? Where to implement? What scale?" This question is answered in the following six sections: The first section reviews the relevant legislation pertaining to the biodegradable organic waste and elucidates the important role of AD in meeting the stringent targets; the second part of this chapter mentions about the issue of municipal solid...
Turkey is located between south-eastern Europe and south-western Asia with the area of 779,452 square kilometres. The geographic location of the country accepted as strategic bridge between energy rich Middle East countries and Asia (Demirbas, 2008). Parallel to increase in privatization of public enterprises, the competition in energy sector has been increased. Especially, privatization in recent years, strategic partnerships, licence auctions lead to liberalization and acceleration in growth...
Global warming is a major threat to the survival of human beings, animals and plants. It is an issue that needs to be tackled from all fronts, locally, nationally and internationally. This assignment is an attempt to examine the international joint efforts for tackling global warming at the national level, addressed to the world leaders at an international conference. The target audience involved in this case is a group of environmental stake holders representing government policy markers,...
With the increase in industrialization and its impact on the Earth, there is an increasing concern for the future of human kind. Words like "sustainability" and "sustainable development" are being used more frequently. Sustainability is a multidimensional concept and focuses on the triple bottom line concept i.e. ecological, social and economic objectives. The aim was to achieve sustainable development through the integration of the environmental dimension into all policy...
The use of ground and surface water is a major concern for most municipalities within the United States. Over 85 percent of withdrawals from water sources were fresh water in 2005, that's 349,000 million gallons per day (Joan F Kenny, 2009)! This paper will address, broadly, some of those concerns. This paper will cover basics of the water cycle, the effects of climate on water, resource usage and long term sustainability in Minnesota. It is the goal of this paper to explore some national...
Per capita water availability in Pakistan has been decreasing at an alarming rate. In 1951, the per capita availability was 5300 cubic meter which has now decreased to 1105 cubic meter just touching water scarcity level of 1000 cubic meter. Almost all fresh water recourses are severely polluted due to discharge of untreated industrial and municipal wastes, pollution of coastal waters due to wastes discharges and oil spills coupled with reduced freshwater flows is resulting in declining fish...