Finding a wind farm site is a juggling act where many, often conflicting, issues need to be considered and balanced before a decision to develop a potential site is taken. At the most basic level, after establishing that the output from a wind power project can be sold at an acceptable price, the following are the acid tests for any potential development: 1.Is grid connection likely to be cost effective for the desired size of development? 2.Is the wind resource adequate? 3.Will the project be...
Following the terrorist attack on the New York World Trade Center in 2001, this paper seeks to investigate the design features that would enhance the safety of tall buildings. Design/methodology/approach - Using a questionnaire, data have been collected via e-mails and by post from architects and civil engineers (AEs) in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted with public authorities. Findings - The results show that AEs perceive tall buildings to be generally safe in terms of...
The rate and direction of technological change (together with changes in population, economic growth, governance, and social values) are key drivers determining future land use (Berhout et al., 1998). (Cited from Burgess and Morris; 2009) GIS has been widely applied in the modern day and been recognized as a powerful and effective tool in detecting land use. (Weng, 2001) (Cited from Mubea, Ngigi and Mundia; 2010) The amounts of land used for each purpose are constantly changing and the nature...
Pakistan has about 4.2 million ha covered by forests, which is equivalent to 4.8 percent of the total land area (Government of Pakistan 2003), which is very low when compared with 30 percent for the world (FAO 2001). Total forests area of different provinces and territories of Pakistan viz. Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Azad Kashmir and Northern areas is 0.92, 0.33, 0.69, 1.21, 0.42, and 0.66 million ha respectively (Government of Pakistan 2003). This shows...
In November, 2009 the UN Development Programme (UNDP) office noted that 1.5 Billion people of the world, approximately one-fourth of current world population are still without electricity (EIA World report, 2009). They are mostly in rural developing world. The UNDP also highlighted the urgent needs to ensure that the energy needs of developing countries are central to any new climate change agreement. The majority of them who live in the dark are in the least developed countries (LDCs) of South...
Based on my research about the current Philippine Environmental Laws, I found out that it has two parts; first is the Presidential Decree no. 1586 or the Environmental Impact System which states that no projects shall be implemented without an Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC).In order for the government to find out if they are to issue an Environmental Compliance Certificate, an assessment should be done regarding the proposed project's impact on the environment. An Environmental...
Petroleum producing countries cartel has coerced those who are constrained to buy these products to shell out exorbitant prices at the cost of their economic stability. Since there is no escape from ever increasing use of petroleum fuels, search for alternative fuels has intensified. Attention has been concentrated on use of biological materials as an alternative and renewable source of fuel. Some specific crops, vegetable oils and biological wastes which are abundantly available are ideal as...
Over the years, there has been increasing interest in electricity generation using hydropower. However, it is only recently that the impacts of hydroelectric power plants on the environment have been recognized; until now, it was assumed that hydroelectric power generation was a clean and environmentally friendly electricity production method, compared to other methods. After extensive research, it has been found that hydroelectric power production has some impacts that include production of...
urban environment in constant transformation with the requirements of living and accelerated urbanization needs which control variables and rectify effects to maintain quality life, in sound and healthy environment, land usage and requirements of mobility and services of infrastructure and economic and social frameworks . all threads are integrated with each other , the interact may has negative or positive influence on the environment and it may...
Thesis Statement: With non-renewable resources of energy being consumed at a very rapid rate, sustainability of energy has become the need of the hour. In the current context of meeting the global energy demands, nuclear energy meets every reasonable criterion for sustainability. The increase in the concerns about the harmful side-effects of global warming, coupled with a faster dwindling of the conventional sources of energy, have led to a renewed interest in nuclear energy. After the Cold...