The occurrence whereby light is emitted when 'excited' molecules return to a lower energy, ground state, is called luminescence. There are three subdivisions of luminescence which are fluorescence, phosphorescence and chemiluminescence. 8.2.1: Fluorescence and phosphorescence Fluorescence is when light is emitted typically inside 10-9 or 10-12 of energy being absorbed. When an excited electron in the singlet state crosses to a triplet state it is known as phosphorescence. These probabilities...
Firstly I would like to say that Fuel cells are considered a specific device which converts the chemical power to a fuel (natural gas, hydrogen and gasoline. The air or oxygen may be converted also into electricity. The fuel cell operates like a battery particularly. Unlike a battery however, a fuel cell does not run down or require recharging. But it will produce the electricity and heat as long as fuel and an oxidizer are supplied. Hydrogen is one of the most significant choices for all the...
The objective of this document is to assess the environmental impact and perform a risk assessment of a MSW incineration plant building project for a city with 100,000 population near the Loch of Skene, Aberdeenshire. Assuming that average MSW arising in UK is 509 kg per individual per year, a 50,000 tonnes per annum incineration facility is required, with a 60 m height stack, and a building area of approx. 3,500 m2 and a total land take of 4 ha. The lower calorific value of MSW should be at...
UK implemented different types of renewable energy to provide power. The sources of renewable energy have been implemented within the UK will be discussed in this document. The six of renewable energies have been implemented in UK; such as, tidal, solar, wind energy, biofuels, wave power and geothermal energy. Introduction Fuel combustion produces greenhouse gases, climate change becomes more serious and causes many environmental problems. Since fossil fuels are limited and people heavily...
Clear cutting forestry land around the world has become a controversial topic. People argue that clear cutting an area destroys wildlife habitats and leaves the land in a wasteful state, which takes hundreds of years to regenerate. Not to mention that a clear cuts look like a giant ugly hole on a hillside. In the Northwest, environmentalists were able to stop logging in some areas because of the spotted owl. The spotted owl is an endangered animal that only lives and breeds in old growth trees....
Desertification is considered one of the most serious environmental and social economic issues in the world. Desertification has been troubling China for numbers of years. "China's desertification is growing worse". As a large country with a dense population and complex environmental conditions, China is aware that desertification combating is of importance to its environment and community. Dunhuang a city located at the north-western part of China faces threats from the expansion of...
Water is a common substance that is essential to all forms of life. A massive 75 percent of planet earth is covered in water and is mostly found in oceans and large water bodies. Of this total volume of water, 97 percent is saltwater and 3 percent is freshwater. 69 percent of this freshwater is glacial and 31 percent is groundwater. For billions of years, earth has been reusing water over and over again in a natural process called the hydrologic cycle (BENEFITS OF RECYCLING., 2010). This cycle...
Going green creates not only a healthier and cleaner future for later generations, but also lessens the costs of energy and resources. With resources diminishing and the costs of energy sources rising, switching to alternative sources seems like a smart move. One would think that going green would save money, and in the long run it does, but what exactly is the cost of creating a greener America? Alternative energy is one of the top issues discussed to become more eco-conscious. There are...
On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake triggered an extremely severe nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, owned and operated by the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). This accident was ultimately declared as Level 7 ("Severe Accident") by International Nuclear Event Scale (INES). Figure 1 : Fukushima Daiichii Nuclear Power Plant The huge earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant knocked out backup power systems...
When one speaks of the Great Barrier Reef, they tell of the most famous and largest coral reef in the world. This dazzling world of plant and animal life is hard to comprehend and is marvelous to see. The broad and shallow continental shelf of northeastern Australia provides an ideal pedestal for growth. This reef is a collection of 280 barrier reefs, 300 coral cays and rock islands stretching for 1,250 miles along the coast of Queensland, Australia and 160 miles offshore. It covers 135,000...