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Eutrophication, the hyper-enrichment of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen in a waterway, is the main cause of algal blooms. Nutrient enrichment causes hyper-productivity and promotes algae growth, resulting in massive blooms that can ultimately consume a water body; devastating the ecology of fresh water ponds and streams. The algae blocks precious sunlight needed for photosynthesis and growth of other plants, it chokes them of nutrients. While the algae grow very quickly, each algae...
Environmentally friendly management of waste is a vital factor in moving towards the goal of a sustainable society. With growing populations placing a strain on the environment, the issue of waste management has become a global priority. The need for efficient and effective waste management is becoming increasingly clear, as poor waste management practices are not only affecting the environment, but impact on all levels of society. Waste management issues are rooted in economic and social...
There has been a major climatic change that has taken place throughout the years on Earth. Climate change is a movement which is continuously growing. Governments from around the world are organizing programs to deal with the increase in extreme levels of weather that the world is experiencing. Taking action to climate change can also make our economy more internationally competitive by creating growth, jobs, while producing less wastes, pollution, and greenhouse gases. There are many political...
Introduction Fire safety engineers utilize fire science and technology to protect human life and human property in case of fire. It involves fire safety design, fire safety engineering and fire safety management for the design purpose. Over the past several centuries, fire safety engineering has evolved significantly, from early applications to prevent conflagration to the latest application of fire limitations such as fire compartmentalization. The evolutions of fire safety engineer seem to be...
South Africa is one of the worlds and Africas most important mining countries in terms of the variety and quantity of minerals produced. It has the worlds largest reserves of chrome, gold, vanadium, manganese and PGM's. South Africa is the leading producer for nearly all of Africa's metals and minerals production apart from diamonds (Botswana and the DRC), uranium (Niger), copper and cobalt (Zambia and the DRC) and phosphates (Morocco). The country's mineral industry can be broken down into...
Waste heat is heat, which is generated in a process by fuel combustion or chemical reaction, and then "dumped" into the environment even though it could still be reused for some useful and economic purpose. The essential quality of heat is not the amount but rather its "value". The strategy of how to recover this heat depends in part on the temperature of the waste heat gases and the economics involved. Large quantity of hot fuel gases is generated from Boilers, Kilns, Ovens...
Alpha, beta particles or gamma rays are dangerous to living cells as their energy damages molecules and long term exposure can lead to cancer. If you are exposed to a single large dose of radiation, radiation sickness and even death can occur. Changes in atoms during radioactive decay: Alpha decay happens when the nucleus of a large, unstable atom decays to make a smaller, more stable atom (the nucleus splits in two parts). The new smaller atom has 2 protons and 2 neutrons fewer than before....
South Africa has a situation where part of the country receives more rain than is needed and other parts where not enough rain is received. In these areas not enough water is available to meet the demand for domestic use and agricultural use. There are several reasons contributing to the water situation in South Africa. There are also several options to aid the situation and help the dry areas.Image showing the different rainfall levels in South AfricaThe bright green areas which mainly appear...
Hu Siyi, vice minister of water resources, said that serious rivers pollution and the deteriorating aquatic ecology are "quite outstanding" and may threaten the country's sustainable growth. This essay is talking about the externalities of water pollution in China. The externalities mean the outside effects of activities ,negative externalities mean the bad effect. The externalities are created when social costs and benefits differ from private costs and benefits. For example, a...
In the early part of the century, the term sustainability was phrase to reflect the methods, technology and goal of practices, in order words, to provide growth but ensure the environment is not degraded in the long term. The definition was narrow at the start but has soon expanded over time to mean more things to different people, countries and organisations. It was coined to encompass all activities present and the future, to ensure that sensitive natural resources is not damage, and should...