Energy generation in Ireland is undergoing a series of changes due, in part, to Irelands commitment to the Kyoto Protocol and other binding international agreements. In terms of electricity generation Ireland required 2,728 ktoe (31,726 MW) in electricity transformation & transmission losses in 2010 (SEAI 2011). Despite the fact that energy demand has dropped slightly over the last two years due to the recession, Irelands total energy requirement is projected to increase for the...
Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials in the world. However, the production of Portland cement which is an essential constituent of concrete, leads to the release of significant amount of greenhouse gas. One ton of Portland cement clinker production releases approximately one ton of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concrete is the mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and water in required proportions. The mixture when placed in forms and allowed to...
The following study is about a wind farm project, which will be installed in the interior sindh. The project will help in reducing the energy problem of Pakistan and in return will prove to be a profitable initiative. The Study covers the market in which the project will be operative the international scenario, local demand and available and required resources for the project. The project also covers the cost and revenue analysis, return on investment, internal rate of return and depreciation...
Introduction This chapter explains the overall framework of research implementation adopted from Visual Resource Management System as discussed in previous chapter. The process is summarized in Figure 3.1 which has three main components; first is scenic quality assessed objectively based on criterion, second is sensitivity levels which are measures of public concern about scenic quality of study area and lastly is the distance zones which analyze the visibility of the landscape from main...
As part of the Government's drive to reduce the waste sent to landfill the Government of the United Kingdom (U.K) have decided that incineration is the answer. This report will outline why it is felt this is the wrong option. As a waste planning authority, under the Town and Country Planning Act 1990, Cornwall County Council (CCC) was legally required to have a 'Waste Local Plan' (WLP). CCC after years of consultation adopted a WLP in December 2002. This was based on a government white paper...
Water scarcity is the major problem that is faced all across the world. Although 2/3rd of the earths crust is made up of water but all this water is not available for drinking and for other human activities as either it is locked in the form of ice or present in the form of vast saline oceans and seas. It has been found out that 97% of the total water is salty that is of no use to human and animals (except marine animal) and the remaining three percent is available as freshwater. More than half...
"Land use has been affecting environment, transportation, industrialization, production, road usage patterns, commercialization, green house gasses, economic development, workplace, population and housing. In this paper, we will be highlighting relationship of these issues with land use and transportation, in context of region as whole and UAE in particular with some examples."IntroductionThe land use and transportation are not only interrelated but have also direct effects on other...
 The first effect of a dam is to alter the pattern of disturbances that the plants and animals of a river have evolved for. Many aquatic animals coordinate their reproductive cycles with annual flood seasons. Every flood is valuable in that it takes nutrients from the land and deposits them in the river, providing food for the stream's residents. Floods also provide shallow backwater areas on vegetated and shaded riversides; the young of many animals depend on these backwaters to protect them...
Carbon capture and storage (CCS), alternatively referred to as carbon capture and sequestration, is a means of mitigating the contribution of fossil fuel emissions to global warming. The process is based on capturing carbon dioxide (CO2) from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, and storing it in such a way that it does not enter the atmosphere. It can also be used to describe the scrubbing of CO2 from ambient air as a geoengineering technique. Although CO2 has been injected...
Water is life. Not only the human beings but every living thing needs it to survive. Water falls under the category of 'public good' thus government is responsible for the provision of quality drinking water to the society. Over 65% of Pakistan population has access to safe drinking water (Draft National Drinking Water Policy-2009). In recent years, water pollution is increasing at an alarming pace. There are many areas the affect the quality of drinking water in Pakistan. The rapid increase in...