By far the greatest sources of marine pollution are those that are land-based. For both pollution mitigation purposes and the conservation of marine biodiversity it is critical that international efforts to address land based sources of marine pollution are accelerated. In answer to this pressing need and as a result of Agenda 21, the Global Program of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-Based Activities (GPA) was adopted by over 100 governments, including Australia,...
Reverse Osmosis (RO) is the finest water purification technology in the world. !t involves the passage of water from the section containing lower concentration of ionic substances to a higher concentration section when the two are separated by a semi-permeable membrane. In RO, sufficient pressure is applied to force the water to flow through the membrane in a reverse direction. Thus, pure water is produced by screening out dissolved salts and other contaminants. It can improve the color, taste...
One of the important aims of environmental quality studies is to investigate the present of anthropogenic compounds such as organic micropollutants on the ecosystem, in order to minimize or prevent adverse effects. Organic contaminants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAHs) may enter the water environment from many different sources including river runoff, atmospheric precipitation, sewage outfalls and maritime transport (Zhou J.L, and Maskaoui K, 2001). The PAHs are one of the most...
Emissions from heavy-duty vehicles contribute significantly to a number of serious air pollution problems. Ground-level ozone, particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (SOx),and volatile organic compounds (VOCs ) adversely affect public health, contributing to premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreases in lung function and increased respiratory symptoms changes to lung tissues and structures, altered respiratory defense...
Like most natural resources, potable water is under threat of being exhausted due to over-consumption. And like most natural resources, once depleted, regeneration of the ground water and surface water will take hundreds of years. At the present rate of consumption every opportunity needs to be utilized to conserve our sources of water and create legislation that will encourage judicious use of water. Governmental agencies and private enterprise should mobilize their resources to build proper...
A permanent settlement, which is relatively large, as compared to a town or a village and has a population is called as a city. Cities face a great challenge in terms of resource consumption and climate change. Urban areas have high energy and resource intensive lifestyle and consumption pattern. As a consequence, cities and the urban areas today contribute to more than 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions globally. Thus, it's imperative to design and restructure the cities in an eco-friendly...
On December 3, 1984. In the city of Bhopal, a cloud of toxic gases escaped from an American pesticide plant, killing and injuring thousands of people. When the noxious clouds cleared, the worst industrial disaster in history had taken place. Now, Dominique Lapierre in her book "Five Past Midnight" brings the hundreds of characters, conflicts, and adventures together in an unforgettable tale of love and hope.IntroductionUnion Carbide Corporation (UCC) was asked to build a plant for the...
In order to explain the formulae and structures of the complex compounds, or complexes, formed by transition metal salts with molecular species such as ammonia, Werner coined the terms primary valence and secondary valence, as explained in Chapter 1. These concepts remain valid today except that the term oxidation state has replaced 'primary valence' and the term coordination number has replaced 'secondary valence'. Werner had recognized that a transition metal salt could form a complex...
Green organization in Dhahran aim to save environmental energy as possible as they can. Green organization found in Dhahran 2007 , from that time , organization prepare to start this huge project in 2010 to conserve energy in Saudi Arabia . In our project team we separated our team with respect to our majors. So, we end up with five parts to work on energy conservation. The main problem in our environment that we concern on , is environment pollution and conventional energy wastes. In Saudi...
Water scarcity is a problem that has long plagued the Middle East, but no where is the crisis more severe than in the Occupied Palestinian Territories, the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Middle-Eastern water issues ha been central to my life since a young teen, when my family moved to Syria for my father's job with the German Technical Corporation (GTZ). He was the Financial Expert for the Modernisation Programme for the Syrian Water Sector, whose objective was to improve water supply and sanitation...