Introduction This chapter provides a brief insight into public participation and e-Participation and also the various perspectives and definitions. It also briefly discusses the relationship between e-readiness, E-government, e-Democracy and e-Participation. Also, it seeks to show the state of e-Participation in Nigeria and compare it with countries in the west. ()Background and contextAlthough there are also social and political reasons, the growth in the use and adoption of Information and...
Municipal waste water is collected through sewage system. The purpose of sewage treatment is to produce such a effluent which is dispose with out causing harmful effect on surrounding environment. Different experiment were conduct like an-aerobic, aerobic mechanical chemical and thermal by different scientist to treat municipal waste water results were designed in term of organic content removal, pollutant removal and ask removal etc. these result proved that activated sludge process (aerobic-...
The term 'Peak Oil' was first described by M. King Hubbert, a United States geophysicist in the 1950s. Hubbert who was then an employee at Shell's Research Laboratory in Texas predicted that there would be a sharp decline in US oil production after reaching a peak (Wilkinson, 2008). This prediction was very closely accurate as the US oil production as well as production of other industries in history such as anthracite, whale oil etc, reached maximum and declined in 1971 (Fisher, 2008) Oil...
Climate change clearly defines challenges of our present times. The global impacts as well as implications this phenomenon has are largely irreversible and far-reaching. Currently, climate change has instigated an upsurge in health related cases as well as rise in food insecurity and uncontrollable vulnerability to natural disasters. Various natural disasters are very recurrent and the intensity this has on the human health is enormous. As such, world leaders have been engaging in environmental...
Environmental degradation is a process through which the natural environment is compromised in some way, reducing biological diversity and the general health of the environment. This process can be entirely natural in origin, or it can be accelerated or caused by human activities. Many international organizations recognize environmental degradation as one of the major threats facing the planet, since humans have only been given one Earth to work with, and if the environment becomes irreparably...
Latest researches from past few decades indicate the potential impacts of climatic change on water resources. Global warming is the most noteworthy troubles in regard of climate change. The evidence for rapid climate change is compelling the sea level rise, rise in global temperature, warming oceans, shrinking ice sheets, declining arctic sea ice, glacial retreat and ocean acidification. Annual mean surface temperature of our Planet has increased 0.56-0.92oC from 1906 to 2005 and further...
An increasing proportion of the world's population resides in urban areas. Consequently, there is a disproportionate amount of carbon dioxide [CO2] emitted from burning fossil fuels, and changes in land use (Matese et al., 2009). CO2 is an important global warming gas that has the ability to store heat/ infrared radiation from the sun (CDAIC, 2010). As such, it is important to trace the CO2turbulence as well as storage flux in order to give an accurate picture of the net ecosystem carbon...
Soil salinity presents a major limitation to agricultural production since it restrains crop yield and restricts use of land previously uncultivated. Salinity affects almost 20% of all irrigated land and 2.1% of dry-land agriculture worldwide (FAO 2005). Each year there is a deterioration of 2 million ha (about 1%) of world agricultural lands to salinity, leading to reduced or no crop productivity (Szabolcs 1994). In addition to natural causes such as salty raining waters near and around the...
Since the start of the 21st century, global warming has become a widely argued and controversial topic. The media has exacerbated the argument by publishing news stories that amplify the extremes of the argument, such as total global devastation or, in contrast, total absence of global warming. These divergent views, which seem to change from day-to-day, have left the public confused: is global warming real, and if it is, how will it actually affect our lives? One of the presented possible...
For the regional level, policies provide regional framework for the preparation of LA Development Plans. Also it contains a vision statement, a spatial strategy and an implementation plan. Unlike national policy which is broad and general, regional planning policy is for a location however it is not for any site specific. The regional polities integrates all exciting policies and set 15-20 year strategies, encouraging the good communication between each local authorities and providing most...