Job availability in environmental engineering industry varies over time based on government policies, priorities, populations and funding (SCCC). Engineers work in a wide variety of industries, holding different positions that involve in wastewater treatment, mining, air pollution control, facilities planning and consulting (SCCC). Many are employed as consultants by government agencies and research firms. Others work for private companies, dealing with toxic chemical leakage and system design....
This chapter asks the question: "If there is a green technology project to tackle a local issue: What would the issue be? Which green technology? Where to implement? What scale?" This question is answered in the following six sections: The first section reviews the relevant legislation pertaining to the biodegradable organic waste and elucidates the important role of AD in meeting the stringent targets; the second part of this chapter mentions about the issue of municipal solid...
Turkey is located between south-eastern Europe and south-western Asia with the area of 779,452 square kilometres. The geographic location of the country accepted as strategic bridge between energy rich Middle East countries and Asia (Demirbas, 2008). Parallel to increase in privatization of public enterprises, the competition in energy sector has been increased. Especially, privatization in recent years, strategic partnerships, licence auctions lead to liberalization and acceleration in growth...
Global warming is a major threat to the survival of human beings, animals and plants. It is an issue that needs to be tackled from all fronts, locally, nationally and internationally. This assignment is an attempt to examine the international joint efforts for tackling global warming at the national level, addressed to the world leaders at an international conference. The target audience involved in this case is a group of environmental stake holders representing government policy markers,...
With the increase in industrialization and its impact on the Earth, there is an increasing concern for the future of human kind. Words like "sustainability" and "sustainable development" are being used more frequently. Sustainability is a multidimensional concept and focuses on the triple bottom line concept i.e. ecological, social and economic objectives. The aim was to achieve sustainable development through the integration of the environmental dimension into all policy...
The use of ground and surface water is a major concern for most municipalities within the United States. Over 85 percent of withdrawals from water sources were fresh water in 2005, that's 349,000 million gallons per day (Joan F Kenny, 2009)! This paper will address, broadly, some of those concerns. This paper will cover basics of the water cycle, the effects of climate on water, resource usage and long term sustainability in Minnesota. It is the goal of this paper to explore some national...
Per capita water availability in Pakistan has been decreasing at an alarming rate. In 1951, the per capita availability was 5300 cubic meter which has now decreased to 1105 cubic meter just touching water scarcity level of 1000 cubic meter. Almost all fresh water recourses are severely polluted due to discharge of untreated industrial and municipal wastes, pollution of coastal waters due to wastes discharges and oil spills coupled with reduced freshwater flows is resulting in declining fish...
Green technology is described that the technology is environmentally friendly and application of products, equipment and system used to conserve the natural environment and resources, which minimize and reduces the negative impact of human activities. Lighting is one of the most critical to control the qualities of an indoor space. The difference between good and bad lighting can make or break comfort, mood and overall happiness. There are a standard requirement in Malaysia called...
There are many factors influencing the sustainability of water supply in South Africa. One of the reasons is that "According to the global water balance (figure below), South Africa is situated in a negative runoff zone, which means that annual evaporation always exceeds rainfall" and "South Africa is further situated in a semidesert / desert latitude zone, which has almost no weathering and soil formation, due to the drop in precipitation and vegetation cover, and the higher...
As known for decades, pollinators among insects are of irreplaceable value to humans, as reproduction of many crops depend on pollination (McGregor 1976; Crane & Walker 1984; Free 1993; Williams1994; Nabhan & Buchmann 1997; Westerkamp & Gottsberger 2000; Klein et al., 2006) as well as many plant species (Burd 1994; Kearns et al. 1998; Larson& Barrett 2000; Ashman et al. 2004). In Europe as much as 84% of crops depend on pollinators, at least in some extent (Williams 1994)....