South Africa's water supply is increasingly depleting as our demand for water exceeds our supply. Water in South Africa is used for many things such as; agriculture, industries, households, recreation and environmental activities. All of these factors contribute to the unsustainability of South Africa's water supply. Sources of water in South Africa "97% of water on Earth is salt water, leaving only 3% as fresh water of which slightly over two thirds is frozen in glaciers and polar ice...
The concept of 'cities are engines of growth' is discussed and debated and may even be said to be disputed but very few, if any would disagree that cities are an important area of intervention in our quest for sustainable development. In other words 'the significance of cities is not in doubt.' (Jenk, M. Burton, E. & Williams K. 1996). Cities are extremely complex spaces that endure interplay of numerous intricate and interrelated phenomenons. Therefore, it is apparent that sustainable...
Global warming is considered as one of the most significant environmental change that has been observed to occur throughout the world. The earth's atmosphere has turned out to become warmer than ever before due to increase in the level of greenhouse gases. Research has proved that human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels are the main reason for the problem of global warming. The impacts of environmental change which were predicted by scientists are already occurring in our...
We are noticing all around the world, a phenomenal change in climate. Weather and climate have a strong influence on the tourism and recreation sector, including the environmental resources that are the foundation for tourism (e.g., species habitat for ecotourism, snow cover for skiing, water supply, etc.) and the length and quality of tourism seasons. Despite the growing significance of the tourism industry to the global economy and the obvious interrelationship with climate, a number of...
The term 'cluster' has had a multitude of meanings and was once considered a description of a complex containing at least three metal atoms bound together by M-M interactions. As of late it has now been considered true to name any aggregate a 'cluster'.1 The carbonyl clusters of osmium are of huge importance to metal cluster chemistry largely due to its ability to form clusters with different nuclearities, ranging from one to eight metal atoms.2, 3 This is unusual in that the highest nuclearity...
The dissertation project that I have analysed is a design of an Indoor Bowling Arena. The proposed site is located at Parkgate, a small town close to Templepatrick. Throughout the design stages of this project, I looked at how the project could be best adapted or re-designed to become a "Green Building". The demand for energy keeps rising which requires the generation of vast amounts of electricity. Changes have been made to make buildings more energy efficient. Understanding the use...
Over the last two decades, there have been ever increasing demands on governments and countries to reduce their impact on the global environment in terms of carbon emissions and energy consumption. It is now accepted by most nations that we need to work together on a global scale to achieve a reduction in carbon emissions (Stern, 2006). In response to global unification of reducing carbon targets, the UK produced the White paper in 2003 which outlines the main focal areas where, we as a nation,...
Due to the increasing energy prices and declining energy resources it becomes more and more important to use alternative energy providing solutions. According to the Kyoto protocol and the climate change conference in Copenhagen that at the moment discuss the most important industry countries relating to the environment and economy about the questions: How to reduce the green gas emissions and how to reduce the consumption of ending fossil energy sources? The most of the countries have the...
Disasters are seen as the effect of hazards on vulnerable areas. Hazards that occur in areas with low vulnerability do not result in a disaster. Great damage, loss, destruction and devastation to life and property are the results of Disasters. The immeasurable damage caused by disaster varies with the geographical location. In the concerned areas disasters have the following effects: It completely upsets the normal day to day life. Harmfully persuade the emergency systems Depending on the...
With co-processing alternative fuels and raw materials are used in cement kilns in place of fossil fuels and primary raw materials, the cement industry offers an economically viable and environmentally friendly solution to a large range of waste problems. AFR generated from waste enter the cement production process which otherwise consumes a significant amount of natural resources and energy. This helps optimise the use of them, cut emissions, and is at the same time a safe method of waste...