In 18th century, the term sustainable development is still not recognized by the public. However, until 1898, Ebenezer Howard conceived the concept of Garden City where settlements and their surrounding countryside are interdependent, and do not deplete the resource and environment around. This advocate of creating a healthy working and living environment is deemed as one of the origins leading to future discussion about the "sustainable development". (Blowers, 1995) Kan Until 1962,...
Currently, the world is suffering energy crises and entering a period of energy transition. And many people have recognized that the industrialized world must rely on renewable energy rather than fossil fuels. Although fossil fuels are the dominant energy source in the modern global economy for the past few centuries, which had helped drive the industrial revolution and promoted the material prosperity. However, fossil fuels will not last forever. The World Energy Council (WEC, 2004) suggests...
After years of debate, the scientific community seems to have reached a general consensus that climate change is happening with the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPPC) Report surmising that not only was the warming of our global climate unequivocal, but a direct result of the anthropogenic emissions of 'greenhouse gases' from fossil fuels1,2. In these terms the debate is no longer if climate change is occurring, but how quickly. The main issue is energy - in terms of...
Air pollution is an expression used to describe a state when the chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials exceeds the recommended levels and become a source that harm effects or cause discomfort to humans and other organisms, or cause damages to the living natural environment. Pollution can be resulted from man-made daily industrial processes and activities or by the nature. There are many forms of pollutants solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. Indoor air pollution can be...
Lately the renewable energy has become an important source of energy that have been increasing day by day. Biomass has an important role on it where it has been used for thousands of years as a source of energy and nowadays is the major fuel source in worldwide terms' quantities. Due to the decay of fossil fuels, the demand of biofuels has increased considerably where different products have been implemented and developed. It is known that biofuels crops need lower levels of input and costs...
Impacts of boreal forest fires have absorbed intensive attention because of huge fires in these years in Alaska as well as Siberia. To reduce impacts of forest fire in boreal forest area, the early fire detection is one of essential components in firefighting activity because of difficulties of fire suppressing in remote area without water. Here, we developed fire detection information system from receiving AVHRR to output fire detection map and validated the early detection algorithm using...
Water seen as sacred, a source of strength and power is very important for human existence. Today, all around the world, small communities have taken the initiative to provide and improve on their water supply schemes so as to enhance development in their communities. Although these improvements in water supply will generally benefit the whole community, women and men may need water for different purposes and consequently have different priorities and interests in the improvements to be made....
The atomic model is not a concrete, one-hundred percent accurate depiction of the atom or description of what the atom is like. We cant base our model on actual observations of atoms, because they are too small to be seen with our most sensitive instruments.  Instead, we must come up with a model of an atom that can account for and explain observations that we can actually see. As new observations are made over time, by scientists Democritus, Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Bohr, the model of...
Bio-Fuel is a fuel which is derived from biological organism or biomass; by the process of fermentation or transesterification. This concept of deriving Bio-fuel from the plants and vegetables was first purposed in 1898 by a French scientist Rudolph Diesel, the inventor of 'diesel engine'. He came up with an idea that the diesel engines in automobiles can run on diesel obtained form vegetables and fruit. He used peanut oil in his first exhibition of diesel engine at Paris in 1900. (Pacific...
Sudan has an area stretching around 2.5 million square Km, laying between 4 and 22 North latitude, mostly a flat plain surface with a few mountains with deserts covering over 50% of the country. Environmental Impact Assessment started in the 1980s in many developing countries in Africa, and a major role of transferring the EIA applications was engaged by the United Nations and other international agencies. It is worth noting that EIA became a legal requirement in 2001, however assessing a...