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Understanding the soils ecosystem and its functions is vital for sustainable agricultural production, food security, and improved nutritional and increased farm income among smallholder farmers. The population increase which has led to diminishing land holding size coupled with higher poverty levels, and government policies of which its impacts are alarming, has escalating effects on degradation. Although there is substantial knowledge on soil chemistry, soil physics, soil biodiversity, among...
Water has now become an economic resource. The ways to treat waste water have developed over the years and there have been many modifications. The treatment of waste water comes at a high cost. It also depends on the type of wastes that are present in the water. The current situation of water pollution in developing countries is alarming and governments have taken steps to curb the damage. Polluted water not only affects the flora and fauna it is also detrimental to the health of human beings....
Has Dark Matter been discovered? - An overview of Dark Matter and detector techniques as well as DAMA and experimental proposal for testing their claims. Dark matter is an exotic non-baryonic form of matter which does not interact with the electromagnetic force. Its existence is only inferred due to its effects on visible matter via the gravitational force, this hypothesis stems from the fact that the mass of all visible matter does not account for the motions of galaxies, clusters of galaxies...
Almost one fifth of the world's population live in absolute poverty, each living on less than one US dollar a day (Jess, 2000). Rural land-users in many developing areas are facing increasing challenges in their day-to-day lives (Francis, 2000). Climate change can bring both positive and negative impacts on different land users through exposing farmers and rural households to new and unfamiliar conditions (Osbahr et al., 2008). These risks and impacts of climate change around the world are...
The Earths atmosphere is a topic of many debates in the past few decades. It is usually mentioned in context with global warming and greenhouse gases. Global warming as the largest experiment being done by humankind, started unintentionally few centuries ago, hand in hand with the industrial progress and burning of fossil fuels. This experiment involves the whole planet and influences on present generations with unclear future for next generations. Many people are trying to argue whether global...
To maintain comfortable thermal conditions for the occupants is the basic requirement for any environment, because the thermal conditions have direct impact on the health, morale and productivity of human. Throughout the history using by using the intelligence and by being creative humans has been able to create environments which are comfortable for them to perform their activities and to keep maintaining such environments is very important. A complete thermal comfort occurs when the net heat...
Cambodia territory entirely consists of three major watersheds, i.e. the Mekong River, the Tonle Sap Lake system and the coastal area, covering 42, 44 and 14% of the country's land area, respectively. The catchment of the Tonle Sap Lake is physiographically characterized by four distinct topographical features. The north is formed by an escarpment of the sandstone Dangrek Mountains. The southwest is dominated by the granite Cardamom Mountains which forms the watershed boundary between the...
Magma contains dissolved gases that are released into the atmosphere during eruptions. Gases are also released from magma that either remains below ground or is rising towards the surface. In such cases ,gases may escape continuously into the atmosphere from the soil, volcanic vents, fumaroles and hydrothermal systems. A number of gases including water vapour ,CO2,CO are emitted during volcanic activity. Water +CO2 =90% of emitted gases.(Natural hazards ,Edward A Keller, Robert H...
Storm overflows, which is widely acknowledged as combined sewer overflow (CSO), is the discharge of wastewater and stormwater from a combined sewer system directly into a river, stream, lake or ocean. The discharge contains not only storm water but also untreated human and industrial waste, toxic materials, and debris. They are a major source of pollution that has significantly impact on the environment and social wellbeing. Practical and political strategies will be, and are being, undertaken...
IUU fishing has become of global concern as a result of it rate of increase in most parts of the world. FAO in 2001 developed the IPOA-IUU and a technical guideline to help combat IUU fishing globally. However some countries especially in West Africa are still experiencing the presence of illegal fishing activities in it waters of national jurisdiction. Most of these illegal activities are practised by foreign vessels who intrude into the waters without authorisation. Local fishermen in these...