In this thesis project, a comparative analysis between parameters from an existing experimental data of SCAL measurements and pore network flow models is carried out. The SCAL parameters include relative permeability and capillary pressure. The experimental dataset was obtained from a large number of sandstone fields comprising capillary pressure and relative permeability data for drainage and imbibition. The curves from different processes were obtained from fitting models such as: Corey or...
Global warming can be defined as the climate change which causes gradual increase in the average temperature of the lower atmosphere, including land, water and near-surface air. It contributes to one of the most complex systems on the planet, regional climates and the atmosphere. In simple words, global warming refers to increased temperature of the earth's surface. Global warming refers to a slight increase in temperature at the planetary scale. The consequence is not just warmer weather, if...
The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and the achievement of its water quality objectives will to a large degree depend on scientific knowledge about the sources and status of water resources and the effects of mitigative measures. Coastal waters will be of central in- terest, since the management of whole river basins may be affected if coastal water status is not satisfactory. The Water Directive's general directions on what information the water authorities need and on...
Vehicles have an important place in our day to day life. One cannot imagine an easy life without them. Right from the invention of wheel and then vehicles we are using them for transportation. Since the age of bullock carts humans are developing vehicles for easy and fast transportation. Internal Combustion engines (ICE) played an important role in our development. However, every coin has two sides, on one side we developed and progressed; on the other side this development and race to progress...
Nutrient enrichment can have many benefits to the barren ocean. Significant experiments such as IronEx I, IronEx II and SOIREE have provided a much closer insight to how biological productivity and concentration of chlorophyll have increased due to the dissolved iron being introduced into the high-nitrate, low chlorophyll regions of the world's ocean waters. The link between global warming and photosynthetic rate of the plankton community can also be analysed and concluded. Nutrient enrichment...
Water is a unique substance, because it can naturally renew and cleanse itself, by allowing pollutants to settle out (through the process of sedimentation) or break down, or by diluting the pollutants to a point where they are not in harmful concentrations. However, this natural process takes time, and is difficult when excessive quantities of harmful contaminants are added to the water. And humans are using more and more materials that are polluting the water sources that we drink from. In...
Japan is an intriguing Country. It is the 3rd largest economy in the World with a GDP of US$ 4.19 trillion. Yet Japan is an acutely energy poor Country with only 4% of its energy supply needs met domestically. Japan's also has the highest Oil dependency for the advance economies. Its level of industrialization has also caused it to produce a high amount of CO2 emissions and it is the 4th largest contributor to CO2 emissions in the World. Japan has ambitious Kyoto protocol obligations that...
Landslides are a major threat to human life, property and constructed facilitates infrastructure and natural environment in massy mountain regions of the world. As a consequence of climatic changes and potential globe warming, an increase of land slide activity is expected in some part of the world in the future. Climate is a dynamic component of the environment, which has a direct and indirect influence on man and his activities. Climate has never been the same over time and space. Most...
This feasibility study report has been prepared as per the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) signed between Grameen Shakti, Bangladesh and PEAR Carbon Offset Initiative Limited, Japan for the implementation of commercial biogas digesters as a Clean Development Mechanism Programme of Activities (CPA) to contribute to the sustainable economic development of Bangladesh. This CPA to be implemented in Faridpur municipality includes two commercial biogas digesters with total biogas (methane content...
Around the world, a growing share of the devastation triggered by environmental degradation stems from ecologically destructive practices and from putting ourselves in harm's way. Many ecosystems have been frayed to the point where they are no longer resilient and able to withstand natural disturbances, setting the stage for 'unnatural disasters' - those made more frequent or more severe due to human actions. By degrading forests, engineering rivers, filling in wetlands, and destabilizing the...