Taxation Without Representation Lead To American Revolution

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Taxation Without Representation Leads To The American RevolutionThe Catalyst of taxation without representation was the Stamp Act of 1765.

The Stamp Act Required all legal documents, licenses, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets, and playing cards to carry a tax stamp.

The Stamp act enabled England to fund their adventures around the world.

In Opposition to the Stamp act the Colonists created the Stamp Act Congress which assembled nine delegates from nine of the thirteen colonies.

The congress expressed the opposition of the stamp act in three documents: a Declaration of Rights and Grievances, an address to the king, and a group of petition to both houses of the parliament.

They also expressed that they should be taxed because they don?t have representation in the houses of parliament.

So the stamp act was repealed in 1766, Largely as a result of pressures that the English businessmen were giving the government to repel that stamp acts.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-183, S-557, U-156, America, P.134-143, Colonial America, P.

280-283, The Light and the Glory, P.263-265, Revolutionary America, P.21-55, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.88-90, the American Covenant, P.114, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628)Townshend acts of 1767imposed duties on glass, lead, paper, and so forth.

The attitude in American was getting ugly and kept Getting uglier because the American where opposed to new taxes.

During the stamp act congress the Americans made it clear That they were opposed to any new taxes that simply put in use for the sole purpose of adding more revenue to England.

When they enacted the Townshend acts they were going against all that the colonists had requested them not to do that was why the attitude in America was so ugly.

They commissioners of the Townshend Acts where afraid that Physical harm may come to them so they requested troops to watch out for them.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, U-156, America, P.139-143, Colonial America, P.283-284, The Light and the Glory, P.263, 266, Revolutionary America, P.79-80, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.90-91, The American Covenant, P.114, Microsoft Encarta Western Civilization P.628) When England decided not respond to the outcry of the Colonists.

The colonists resorted to boycott any good imported from England.

In many cities Violence broke out.

As a result, the British ordered General Thomas Gage to transfer a large force of troops to Boston where the violence had been the worst.

From the time the troops had arrived in Boston in 1768, the tension between the soldiers and the colonists progressively mounted.

Finally, on March 5, 1770, an unfortunate accident occurred that would have a resounding effect on English American relations.

It all happened when several boys started to through snowballs at a sentry in the Customs office.

When the officer called for help, British Soldiers and local citizen came ruining.

Soon an angry crowd started to harass the soldiers and an unknown person gave the orders to fire.

When the some cleared three lay dead on the street and two others were mortally wounded.

On the same day as the Massacre erupted the Townshend acts were repealed because they realized that the Townshend acts were costing more to enforce than they were worth.

All the Townshend Acts were repealed accepts for the Tea Tax.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-187, U-156, A-33, B-289, M-195, America, P.141-142, Colonial America, P.

284, The Light and the Glory, P.252, Revolutionary America, P.81, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.91-92, the American Covenant, P.114, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628) The Tea Tax remained intact that the British had a right to tax the Colonists.

When the Townshend acts where repealed the colonists lifted their boycott on the products of taxation from the Townshend.

From 1771-1773 the colonist had peaceable relations with the England.

In 1773, new trouble erupted between England and the Colonists when Parliament made a blundering attempt to help the nearly bankrupt East India Company.

Up to this time the law required that the East India Company sell its tea through a middlemen in England.

Duties were passed levied upon when the Tea passed through the English Ports and also when in arrived at the colonial Port.

In may 1773, Parliament adopted legislation allowing the East India Company to ship its tea directly to the colonies, avoiding the middle man and the payment duties in England.

Even With the import duty on tea in at colonial ports, the company could sell its tea below the prices of the tea smuggled in from Holland.

The East India Company would have a virtual monopoly.

The American Refused to buy the tea, and they were infuriated that Parliament would grant a monopoly to the east India Company and insulted that Parliament would expect them to compromise on principle for the sake of their pocketbook.

In Charleston, the tea had to be protected by customs officials in government warehouses.

In New York and Philadelphia the tea laden Ships were ordered to return to England.

But in Boston, Governor Hutchinson refused the request of the citizens of Boston to send the tea back to England.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-184, U-156, C-692, America, P.144-146, Colonial America, P.

285-286, The Light and the Glory, P.263, 268, Revolutionary America, P.82-83, 93,108, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.93, the American Covenant, P.115-116, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) On December 16, 1773, a group of colonial Patriots disguised them selves as Mohawk Indians, they boarded three ships, and threw 342 chests of tea over board in to the Boston harbor, meanwhile on the shoreline a crowd cheered at their actions.

They were careful not harm anything but the tea itself, the British Authority were outraged at their action and they referred to this incident as the Boston Tea Party.

The identities of the patriots Participating in the Boston tea party remained a secret except for a few hundred Bostonians.

One of Participants testified that Sam Adam and John Hancock participated In the Boston Tea Party.

The Boston Tea Party might easily have undermined the Radical Patriots creditability.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-184, U-156, C-692, America, P.144-146, Colonial America, P.

285-286, The Light and the Glory, P.263, 268, Revolutionary America, P.82-83, 93,108, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.93, the American Covenant, P.115-116, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) In April 1774 Parliament enacted four Harsh Measures designed by Lord North to discipline Boston.

These Acts Were Called the Coercive acts, but the Colonists nicknamed the acts the Intolerable acts.

The Boston Pert Act closed the closed the Port from June 1, 1774 until the lost tea paid for.

An Acts for the Impartial Admistration of Justice let the Governor transfer to England the trial of any official accused of committing an offence in the line of duty, no more redcoats would be tried on technicalities.

A new Quartering Act directed local authorities to provide lodging for British soldiers, in private home if necessary.

The Massachusetts Government Act made the colony?s council and law enforcement Officers all appointive, rather than elected; sheriffs would elect jrors; no town meeting could be held without the governor?s consent, except for the annual election of town officers.

The Quebec Acts was passed in June 1774; the act provided that the government to the north in Canada would not have a representive assembly, but an appointed governor and council would lead it.

They also declared that Catholicism was the official religion in the region of Canada.

Even though the Quebec act was not one of the Coercive act they colonist considered it one of the intolerable acts.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-184, U-156, C-692, America, P.146-148, Colonial America, P.

285-286, The Light and the Glory, P.263, Revolutionary America, P.93, 141, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.93, the American Covenant, P.117-118, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) As a response to the coercive acts the Colonists formed the Fist Continental Congress which met on September 5, 1774 in Philadelphia.

The fifty-five delegates represented twelve Continental colonies, all but Georgia, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and the Floridas.

The congress agree to vote as colonies, although Patrick Henry Urged the members to vote as individuals on grounds that they were not Virginian or New Yorkers, but as Americans.

In effect, the delegates functioned as a congress of ambassadors, gathered to join forces on common policies and neither to govern nor to rebel but to adopt issues and series of resolutions and protest.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, C-692, U-157, R-186, F-384, W-41, P-193, P-281, V309, V-281, America, P.147-150, Colonial America, P.

287-291, The Light and the Glory, P.283, 289,296, Revolutionary America, P.283-289, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.94-95, the American Covenant, P.117-118, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629)The Congress endorsed the radical Suffolk Resolves, resolutions that declared the Intolerable acts null and void.

On October 14, 1774 congress adopted it?s deflation in which it declared that they were to have the same rights as English subjects living in England.

The resolve recognized the authority of the king but it rejected the authority of Parliament over the colonies, although the colonies were willing to tolerate mere trade laws.

The Colonists recognized Parliament to be the legislative body for England.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, C-692, U-157, R-186, F-384, W-41, P-193, P-281, V309, V-281, America, P.147-150, Colonial America, P.

287-291, The Light and the Glory, P.283, 289,296, Revolutionary America, P.283-289, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.94-95, the American Covenant, P.117-118, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) The Congress organized a Continental Association to implement a stiffer boycott of the English goods before, prohibiting the importation and consumption of British goods and banning exportation to the Empire.

TO see that the extensive boycott was carried out, local committees were set up throughout the colonies to publicly report anyone who refused to comply.

Soon, trade with the British Empire slowed considerably.

In England, the actions of the First Continental Congress seemed too little avail.

Although Edmund Burke and a few others tried to persuade Parliament to take wise course of action with the colonies, Parliament Lord North, and George III were determined to rule America as they Pleased and by Force if necessary.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, C-692, U-157, R-186, F-384, W-41, P-193, P-281, V309, V-281, America, P.147-150, Colonial America, P.

287-291, The Light and the Glory, P.283, 289,296, Revolutionary America, P.283-289, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.94-95, the American Covenant, P.117-118, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) On March 28, 1775, Patrick Henry made a speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses in which he fore told the fast- conflict approaching and voiced the sentiments of an ever growing American.

Henry summed up the America spirits with his memorable conclusion: ?I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death.? By Early 1175, it seemed that a major conflict between England and the Colonies was inevitable.

England refused to compromise, and Boston remained under military rule.

Since the arrival of military troops in 1774, the people of Boston had made them as miserable as possible.

Because of no barracks were available, the troops had to camp on Boston common until November.

No carpenters or bricklayers could be hired to build barracks, and no lumber was available for sale.

General Thomas Gage, who had replaced Hutchinson as royal governor of Massachusetts, finally imported bricklayers and carpenters from Nova Scotia to erect winter quarters for his Troops.

Meanwhile, Outside Boston, Colonial militia called the minutemen were training, dilling, and gathering stores of ammunition throughout the winter of 1774-1775.

They were called minutemen because they had to be ready to fight upon a minute?s notice.

They were preparing for the oncoming war with England.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-188, C-639, L-144, M-195, America, P.150-151, Colonial America, P.

287-288, The Light and the Glory, P.271-276, Revolutionary America, P.126, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.96-105, the American Covenant, P.117-119, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) By spring the British Knew that patriots were accumulating large stores of ammunition at Concord, about 20 miles outside of Boston? On the night of April 18,1775, General Gage prepared about 700 troops to march to Lexington to Arrest Patriots leaders John Hancock and Sam Adams and than go on to Concord and capture the Ammunition.

About ten O?clock that evening, the troops in Boston began the short row across the Charles Rivera to Cambridge.

Although the British move was supposed to be a secret, the patriots Had learned of their plans.

A local patriot had promised that when the British made their move that he signal a warning by placing lanterns in the Old North Church, ?One if by Land, Two if By Sea.? When two lanterns appeared in the belfry, Paul Revere, William Dawes, and Dr.

Samuel Prescott rode throughout the night to warn their countrymen that the British were coming.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-188, C-639, L-144, M-195, America, P.150-151, Colonial America, P.

287-288, The Light and the Glory, P.271-276, Revolutionary America, P.126, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.96-105, the American Covenant, P.117-119, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) The sun was just rising as the British Troops marched into Lexington on the morning of April 19,1775.

Although John Hancock and Sam Adams had already fled, about 70 minutemen waited on the village green to the British.

?Disperse, ye villains,? cried the British commander.

He ordered the patriots to give up their weapons, but they refused.

Mindful that they were defenders of law and, and not rebels, Captain John Parker had ordered his minutemen, ?Stand your ground.

Don?t fired unless fired upon; but if they mean to have a war, let it begin here!? It?s not known who fired that first shot, but it was a ?shot heard ?round the world,? for it was to change the course of human history.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-188, C-639, L-144, M-195, America, P.150-151, Colonial America, P.

287-288, The Light and the Glory, P.271-276, Revolutionary America, P.126, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.96-105, the American Covenant, P.117-119, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629) It eight men killed and ten others wounded, the minutemen were soon forced to flee.

The redcoats moved on to Concord, where they encountered fierce resistance but managed to destroy some munitions the patriots had not already moved.

As the British marched back to Boston, patriots fired upon them from behind trees, shrubs, and barns.

The redcoats felt defenseless against colonists who seemed to be everywhere at the same time.

Although 93 Americans died that day, the British Lost 273 men.

For a brief moment in history, little Massachusetts stood alone against on of the greatest empires of the world.

But she would not belong; soon other colonies were voting to send reinforcements.

The Colonists believed that it was a divine appointment by God that they become a nation.

Thus marking the beginning of the Revolutionary War, American?s war for independence had begun.

(Comptons Encyclopedia, R-188, C-639, L-144, M-195, America, P.150-151, Colonial America, P.

287-288, The Light and the Glory, P.271-276, Revolutionary America, P.126, United States History, Heritage of Freedom, P.96-105, the American Covenant, P.117-119, Microsoft Encarta, Western Civilization P.628-629)Bibliography America, George Brown Tindall, David Emory Shi (W.W.

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Revell, Michigan, Copyright 1977)Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia, (Microsoft Corporations, California, Copyright 2000)The Revolutionary Years, Mortimer J.

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