Science and Technology Design
Project 1 Science and Technology Design Essay
Today's digital word wouldn't be imaginable without optical, chemical inventions and their applications to the camera in the past. The aim of this essay is to show how new technologies and science have changed the design of the camera and improved it, how camera became such as it is now.
The first and the most primitive known camera was widely used from antiquity such the artists as Aristotle (384-3322 BC) and Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519). It was called Camera Obscura or in the other words- the “dark chamber” as Leonardo da Vinci described it. No matter that the design of the camera has completely changed, the basic principle of Camera Obscura is used.Nevertheless, it is considered that the true beginning of both photography and cameras have begun just in 1839 years, when Daguerreotype was discovered by Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre.
With the invention of daguerreotype there were made some other inventions, which necessitated both the first camera and bellowed cameras production. In 1840 Josef Petzval calculated the first photographical 1:3,7 focus lens, including the big throughput of light, which was able to erase one lens optical distortions quite well. In the same year the first metal camera with Josef Petzval's lens was made by the German company “Voigtlaender”. Other two very important, inventions determined the bellows coming, were made by Scott Archer and D. K. Maxwell. F. S Archer has invented wet plate negative and D. K. Maxwell has suggested to use colours division as the basic principles for colour photography. Bellows came in during the fifth decade and was improved on this design, in the shape as accordion- like sides allowed more flexibility and enlarged lens focal lenght. The bellows, which were used for outdoors were even bigger, because the large format was essential because enlargers were not practical. The biggest one bellow was build in USA in about 1900 and called “The Mammoth”. (pict)
However bellowed cameras were too hard and uncomfortable to move, so some new inventions led to the new design of bellows. The first one was the lens “Periskop” and “Aplanat” designed by German scientists K. A. Steingeil and his son CH. A Steingeil. As a result of it, camera's design became significant smaller.
When in 1887 G. V. Goodwin invented roll film and T. R Dallmeyer invented central shutter there were created the best conditions for the small collapsible bellowed cameras, with opening front, coming. On of the examples of it could be The American Challenge Swivel Bed Camera, appeared in 1883. The tripod of the camera could be easily taken down, so it was a perfect handy camera for travelling.
As an apposite to large and still cumbersome cameras, the miniature models of cameras, called “Detective” (“Demon Detective Camera”, the “Ticka”, “Express Detective Nadar”, “Photo Binocular”) were introduced by manufacturers in Europe and America in 1880's. Miniature cameras could be inslated everywhere: concealed within user's clothing, hats, handbags, shoeshine boxes, even revolvers. However, this fad did not last long because of obvious reason: the small format photos were hardly retouchable and non practical.
The next invention, made by Ritchard Maddox in 1871 was an emulsion of silver bromide gelatine. This emulsion was considerably more sensitive than wet emulsion. George Eastman was the first who applied roll film and wet plates, coated with gelatine emulsion to the camera. The huge novelty was Kodak No. 1, created by George Eastman. However, he improved R. Maddox invention and used a roll of paper instead of plates, coated with gelatine. The Eastman Company successfully started to sell Kodak camera and their widely known slogan “You Press the Button, We Do the Rest” started the era of modern photography.
Hanging gapping shutter led to camera became mechanical and optical- electronic instrument. This made cameras to be able to locate the movement of things, people or animals.
The next step for creating groundwork for serious photography was Barnack's Leica. His idea of “small negative, large picture” came true with a roll of 35mm and exposures from one second to 1/1000 second. Leica has become a standard example of modern handy camera and revolutionized photography: “The extremely fast lens permitted picture taking indoors without special lighting. (“The Camera” 1970y. 137p.)
The next three decades from 1920 to 1940 completely changed the design and construction of cameras and cameras became multifunctional. The cameras were created with entrenched lens (Retina, 1934), rangefinder camera (Contax- 1, 1932, Leica- III, 1933), specular small format camera (Exakta- A, 1934, Sport-1936), rangefinder cameras with exposure meter (Prominent, 1932), camera with automatic lens function to infinity (Agfa Billy-0, 1928). In the same year cameras with a flash and the shutter synchronisation, cameras with the automatic film roll wrapping became ordinary.
The previous developments had had a really important influence in fine cameras. Though a real explosion came with Word War II, when Kodak Instalmatics and Polaroid Camera were created. Polaroid Land camera was the first designed camera, which was able to show instant results and produce a picture during one minute. What is more, these cameras included light-sensitive devices, which metered illumination and aperture for exposure. However, focusing still had to be done by the human so Dr Edwin Land has been working and improving it. The last his camera models were entirely fully automatic and electric powered.(Polaroid SX-70 258psl pagr knyg.) With this camera the production of automatic cameras has started.In 1956 the first camera Agfa Silette SL with semi-automatic control and Agfa Automatic 66 camera with retention automaton were made.Later, cameras gain more and more functions: a camera with exposurement inside (Pentax Spotmatic, 1960), cameras with topical light metter (Leicaflex, 1965), a camera with brightness metter in operating diaphragm (Asahi Pentax Sp, 1964), cameras with dynamical exposition control TTL-DM (Olimous OM-2, 1969) were created. From 1970 the leadership took cameras with instated microprocessors, which straight let to use several modes of photographic process (Canon F-1, 1970, Canon 1AE, 1978, Canon 1A, 1978). The digital cameras were not produced until 1988 and the first one was Fuji DS- 1P, which has a 16MB internal memory card that used a battery to keep files in memory. From then digital cameras have been continuing increasing in quality, capacity and technology
The aim of this essay was to show how essential were science and the new technologies to the design of the camera. Due to these things the camera has become many times easier and smaller to take it anywhere with yourself . What is more, now it houses so many functions that not only professionals but all the amateurs can easily use it.Present
Digital cameras continue to increase in quality and capacity as technology advances. A range of professional digital SLRs, like the 50-megapixel Hasselblad H3D11- 50, point-and-shoot digital cameras, like the Sony DSCW300 Cyber-shot, and models in between, like the Nikon D-40, are being produced.
George Eastman invented paper film near the century's end, making faster camera shutters and easier processing plausible. Throughout the 1900s, innovations like flash, 35mm and color films, and electronic, instant and even digital cameras marked an ongoing movement towards smaller, smarter photographic technology that continues today.