Ultrasonic Pre Irradiation Effect Upon Aqueous Enzymatic Extraction Biology
This study analyses the effect of ultrasonic pre-irradiation treatment upon aqueous enzymatic extraction of essential oil from lemongrass, Cymbopogon citratus by comparing different irradiation time (0min, 5min, 10min, 15min), extraction process time (4hr, 6hr, 8hr) and conventional extraction method (steam distillation and hydrodistillation). Pectinase Ultra SP-L, a commercial enzyme were used in the aqueous enzymatic extraction of lemongrass essential oil. The essential oils extracted were then analyzed for their chemical composition by Gas Chromatography with FID detector. Results showed ultrasonic pre-irradiation time at 15 minutes gave higher yield (0.008%) of essential oil (P<0.5), and the major component were geranial (23.92%) and neral (21.14%). However, irradiation at 5 min showed geraniol (54.45%) and nerol (11.17%) were the major components due to the reduction of aldehydes geranial and neral under the anaerobic condition of the enzymatic extraction process. Sample which have been irradiated with ultrasonic treatment gave the higher yield (0.014%) after 8 hour (P<0.0005) extraction process compare to control (0.012%). Extraction efficiency of essential oil from lemongrass was improved by the ultrasonic treatment, but it was found much lower (P<0.0005) than the amount obtained by steam distillation (0.081%) followed by hydrodistillation (0.050%). As a consequence, ultrasonic pre-irradiation step may improved the yield in aqueous enzymatic extraction of lemongrass essential oil, however have to undergo further analysis such as determination of the right enzymes type, enzyme concentration, pH, temperature and others in order to compete the conventional method.1.
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