Manipulation Of Things Concepts Or Symbols Management

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The manipulation of things, concepts or symbols for the purpose of generalising to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the construction of theory or in practise of an art (Slesinger & Stephenson, 1930). Research is, therefore an addition of original knowledge to an existing body of knowledge for its advancement, it is done through an existing body of knowledge for its advancement which is done through an objective and systematic method of finding solution to a problem.

Methodology is a way to systematically solve a research problem (Lingayas, 2012), it is the way which a study is done scientifically by adopting various steps as adopted by researcher in studying his research problem. Research methodologies explain how to carry out research in proper frame to arrive conclusion. It is describing way that researches collect and analyse data, philosophy and approach of the researcher, what would be the research sampling techniques and so on.

In this chapter we will discuss the research principle, philosophy, approach and suitability of that approach and philosophy researcher has selected for the above research. Further, section will elaborate the detail process of sampling, data collection, target group, questionnaire design, reliability, validity and ethical issues associated with the research. According to the work of Saunders et al. (2009), the research methodology for business management is based on the "Onion" process of research as illustrated in the diagram below

F:Powerpointpe_ukPE083-SaundersFinal_FilesGifch04C04NF001.gif

Figure : The Research "Onion"

Source: Saunders, Lewis, & Thornhill, 2007.

3.2 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY

Essentially research philosophy "it seeks to clarify our concepts, transcend the particularity of disciplinary boundaries and ask questions about those very things we often take for granted" (Williams et al, 1996: 4). Carrying out research for an academic purpose requires taking cognisant of different paradigms which will describe perceptions, beliefs, assumptions, the nature of reality and truth as they can influence the way the research is carried out from design through to conclusions, James and Vinnicombe (2002) were of the opinion that researchers do have inherent preferences that may shape our research design while Hatch and Cunliffe (2006) pointed out that different paradigms "encourage researchers to study phenomena in different ways.

The paradigms were categorised into three main classes not only due to their prevalence in management research but because they effectively form the pillars from which other paradigms are derived. Saunders et al (2009), includes the followings as the main division of philosophic approach to research; pragmatism, positivism, realism and interpretivism.

In this research work, the interpretivistic / constructivist philosophy approach will be adopted due to the fact of the underlying misconception and differentiation in area of the contribution of old workforce to the performance of an organisation.

3.3 Research Paradigm- Interpretivist / Constructivist Paradigm

This paradigm stemmed out of the philosophy of Edmund Husserl's phenomenology and Wilhelm Dilthey's and other German philosophers' study of interpretive understanding called hermeneutics (Mertens, 2005, p.12 citing Eichelberger, 1989). Interpretivist /constructivist approaches researches from the perspective of wanting to understand "the world of human experience" (Cohen & Manion, 1994, p.36), here we rely on the "participants' and management "views of the situation being studied" (Creswell, 2003, p.8) and identifies the impact on the research background and experiences of the participants.

The reason behind this study is to identify the contribution of older workforce to the performance of organisation which has been most controversial management issue in terms of how to manage the old workforce, which has suffered various arguments and context in the business management academic field. In addition, there are various factors inherent in Organisation performance and some are controllable while others are not. In lieu of this and stating clarified work in putting every decision into consideration regarding the telecommunication sector in Nigeria, the researcher belief this will serve as an instrument in providing conclusive and further research work for review.

Research Philosophy

To find out the contribution of older workforce to organisation performance using the MTN Nigeria as a case study.

Research Questions / Hypothesis

Purpose

Research Design

Theoretical Perspective

To what extent does old workforce contributes to the performance of the organisation?

The older work force is more committed to organisation and loyal.

Figure : Research Philosophy

Adapted from Partington, 2008.

Rich, open qualitative and quantitative Interviews and Questionnaire administration to organisation management to understand their perspective on old workforce contribution to the organisation 3.3 Research Approach

Laying emphasis to the empirical work compiled by Saunders et al (2009), research approach can be divided into two main methods, which are "deductive and inductive". Adopting deductive research approach simply means development or gathering of information from the more general field and processed to the specific one (Burney, 2008) as shown in the diagrams below;

Research Method

Approach

Deductive ApproachInductive ApproachFig. 3.4 Source: Research Methods (Burney, 2008:3)THEORYHYPOTHESISOBSERVATIONCONFIRMATIONWaterfall- Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific- sometimes this is informally called a "op-down" approach- Conclusion follows logically from premises (available facts)Fig. 3.5 Source: Deductive Research Approach (Burney, 2008:4)

One basic uniqueness of this research approach is that, it is drawn to provide a logistic conclusion viable for realistic and viability in test hypothesis in research work.

While on the other hand, induction research approach works in opposite direction to that of deduction approach as shown in the below diagram. The reason was that, it takes its viability from the most specific to process to the level of the general theories or broader approach. As highly explained in the diagram, the level of facts are not really 100% certain (Burney, 2008). Inductive approach follows a thorough adhere but flexible design of research which provide the premises at which conclusion will be based.

THEORYTENTATIVEHYPOTHESISPATTERNOBSERVATIONHillClimbing

- Inductive Reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories.

- Informally, we sometimes call this a "bottom up" approach

- Conclusion is likely based on premises

- Involves a degree of Uncertainty

Fig. 3.6 Source: Inductive Research Approach (Burney, 2008:5)

The third approach, which is not mostly discussed in most research literatures, is the abductive approach. This approach is highly appreciated in the work of Alvesson and Skoldbrg (1994) and Wallen (1996) as cited by Trifunovska and Trifunovski (2010) in their research work into human resources management. According to the two researchers, abductive approach involves the application of both deductive and inductive approach in a single research work.

3.3.1

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