The national rural employment guarantee act, 2005

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INTRODUCTIONTHE NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GUARANTEE ACT, 2005.

“An Act to provide  for the enhancement of livelihood  security of the households in rural  areas of the  country  by providing  at least one hundred  days of guaranteed wage  employment  in  every financial  year to  every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work  and for matters connected therewith  or incidental thereto.”

OBJECTIVE OF THE ACT

The objective of the Act is to enhance livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least

100 days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work.

GOALS OF NREGA
  • Strong social safety net for the vulnerable groups by providing a fall-back employment source, when other employment alternatives are scarce or inadequate
  • Growth engine for sustainable development of an agricultural economy. Through the process of providing employment on works that address causes of chronic poverty such as drought, deforestation and soil erosion, the Act seeks to strengthen the natural resource base of rural livelihood and create durable assets in rural areas. Effectively implemented, NREGA has the potential to transform the geography of poverty.
  • Empowerment of rural poor through the processes of a rights-based Law.
  • New ways of doing business, as a model of governance reform anchored on the principles of transparency and grass root democracy.
COVERAGE

The Act was notified in 200 districts in the first phase with effect from February 2nd2006 and then extended to additional 130 districts in the financial year 2007-2008 (113 districts were notified

with effect from April 1st 2007, and 17 districts in UP were notified with effect from May 15th 2007). The remaining districts have been notified under the NREGA with effect from April 1,

2008. Thus NREGA covers the entire country with the exception of districts that have a hundred

percent urban population.

USE OF MAHATMA GANDHI NREGA WITH NEW LOGO

Ministry of Rural Development has amended the title of NREGA to Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Act and has revised the logo in conformity with the amendment of the title. 

JAMMU AND KASHMIR

Jammu and Kashmir is an important tourist destination and has been a place of attraction for tourist since centuries. The lush green forests, sweet springs, perennial rivers, picturesque alpine scenery and pleasant climate of Kashmir valley the paradise on earth has remained an internationally acclaimed tourist destination, whereas Jammu region the land of temples is attracting a large number of pilgrim tourist and the important destination has been Shri Mata Vaishno Devi Shrine. Ladakh region, the moon land has been a much sought - after destination, especially for the foreign tourists and is famous for adventure tourism. The tourism tag has placed always the state of J&K in the limelight at the national level as well as at the international level.

Geographical Scenario of Jammu and Kashmir

The State of Jammu & Kashmir is situated in the extreme north of India and is bounded by china in the north and east, by Afghanistan in the north-west, by Pakistan in the west and by the States of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in the south.

The State of Jammu & Kashmir can be divided into three regions i.e

i) Ladakhii) Kashmir Valley and  iii) Jammu.

There were fourteen districts in J&K at the time of 1981 Census and their number remained the same even in 2001 census. Census could not be conducted in 1991 due to disturbed conditions prevailing in the State. The State of Jammu & Kashmir has 14 district, 59 sub- Districts (Tahsils), 121 CD Blocks, 6,652 villages and 75 towns (of which 72 are statutory and 3 census towns). The state covers an area of 222, 236.0 Km2.

According to the census 2001, the total population of Jammu & Kashmir state is 10,143,700 which is 0.99 percent of the total population of the country. Out of this population 5,360,926 are male and 4,782,774 females.

MGNREGA IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR

This flagship scheme has been launched in Jammu and Kashmir from February, 2006 initially in three districts namely Doda, Kupwara and Poonch. The scheme has been further extended to two more districts viz Anantnag and Jammu and from April, 2007. At present, this scheme is being implemented in all the districts of the State.

Table No. 1

Phase wise Scheme in Districts of Jammu and Kashmir

S. No. Districts

1

DODA

2

KUPWARA

3

POONCH

TotalPhase I

4

ANANTNAG

5

JAMMU

TotalPhase II

6

BADGAM

7

BANDIPORA

8

BARAMULLA

9

GANDERWAL

10

KARGIL

11

KATHUA

12

KISHTWAR

13

KULGAM

14

LEH (LADAKH)

15

PULWAMA

16

RAJAURI

17

RAMBAN

18

REASI

19

SAMBA

20

SHOPIAN

21

SRINAGAR

22

UDHAMPUR

Total Phase III

Source: www.nrega.nic.in

Objectives of the study:

The focus of the study is on the following objectives:

  1. To review the employment generated in Jammu and Kashmir.
  2. To review the number of households issued job cards in Jammu and Kashmir.
  3. To review the total availability of funds in Jammu and Kashmir.
  4. To identify the problems and suggest suitable measures to overcome the problems.
Methodology Adopted:

Significant part of the study depends on secondary sources. But information has also been obtained from primary sources which include interviews, comments, observations, opinion, notes,  etc. of the persons concerned. The primary information was also gathered through discussion with persons in Social Welfare Department, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, J&K. Materials for the present study were collected form the published records available in the library of BGSB University, Rajouri, Jammu and Kashmir, various Economic Survey, Planning Commission, Govt. of India, Digest of Statistics 2007-08, Govt. of India, India 2010, Statistical Abstract 2007, magazines, journals and periodicals, have also been gone through to derive information pertaining to the present study.

Limitations of the Study:

Nothing is perfect so is this study. The present study suffers from certain limitations. The study is based on the information from secondary source which reduce the degree of reliability. However, attempt has been made to collect maximum information from the official record of Department in general and J&K in particular on the various aspects of the study. Most of the departments neither publish the information nor do they allow the outsiders an access to their records, internal working etc. On the pretext of maintaining secrecy. This restricts the data availability. It was difficult to collect all the necessary data from grass root level.

The main features of the MGNREGA are as follows.

  • Every household in rural India will have a right to at least 100 days of guaranteed employment every  year for at least one adult member. The employment will be in the form of casual manual labour at the statutory minimum wage, and the wages shall be paid within 7 days of the week during which work was done.
  • Work should be provided within 15 days of demanding it, and the work should be located within 5 kilometer distance.
  • If work is not provided to anybody within the given time, he/she will be paid a daily unemployment allowance, which will be at least one-third of the minimum wages.
  • Workers employed on public works will be entitled to medical treatment and hospitalization in case of injury at work, alone with a daily allowance of not less than half of the statutory minimum wage. In case of death or disability of a worker, and ex gratia payment shall be made to his legal heirs as per provisions of the Workmen Compensation Act.
  • Five percent of wages may be deducted as contribution to welfare schemes like health insurance, accident insurance, survivor benefits, maternity benefits and social security schemes.
  • For non-compliance with rules, strict penalties have bee laid down.
  • For transparency and accountability, all accounts and records of the programme will be made available for public scrutiny.
  • The District Collector/Chief Executive Office will be responsible for the programme at the district level.
  • The gram sabha will monitor the work of the gram panchayat by way of social audit.
Role of State Government :

The main features to the included in the Programme are :

  • Only productive works that are based on economic, social and environmental benefits, contributing to social equity, and have the ability to create permanent assets will be taken up under the Programme.
  • The works shall be located in rural areas.
  • When wages are directly linked with the quantity of work, the shall be paid according to the schedule of rate fixed by the State Government. For unskilled labourers, this schedule shall be fixed that seven hours of work shall fetch wages equal to the statutory minimum wage fixed by the state.

Thus, the main objective of this scheme is to provide 100 days of guaranteed unskilled wage employment to each rural household opting for it.

PROGRESS UNDER MAHATMA GANDHI NATIONAL RURAL EMPLOYMENT GRARANTEE SCHEME IN JAMMU AND KASHMIREmployment Generated in Jammu and Kashmir:

During 2005-06 an employment generated under the MGNREGA was 2.33 lacs and it reached to 79.25 lacks in the year 2008-09.

Table No. 2Employment Generated in Jammu and Kashmir

Year

Employment Generated

2005-06

2.33 lacs

2006-07

32.89 lacs

2007-08

55.37 lacs

2008-09

79.25 lacs

2009-10

Ending Nov.

61.18 lacs

Source : Govt. of Jammu and Kashmir, Economic Survey, DES, J&K, p 382.

Number of Households Issued Job Cards  in the State of Jammu and Kashmir:

Under the scheme MGNREGA number of households issued job cards from 2005-06 to 2009-10 ending November are shown in the table no. 3

Table No. 3No. of Household Issued Job Cards in Jammu and Kashmir

Year

No. of Household Issued Job Cards

2005-06

25000

2006-07

179133

2007-08

281842

2008-09

298022

2009-10

Ending Nov.

579222

Source : Govt. of Jammu and Kashmir, Economic Survey, Directorate of Economics

And Statistics, J&K, p 382.

Total Availability of Funds and Total Expenditure in Jammu and Kashmir:

The financial outlay during 2006-07 was Rs. 41.54 crore (87%), out of which Rs.36.70 crore had been spent. 179133 numbers of household were issued job cards and 32.89 lakh persondays were generated.

Table No. 4Total Availability of Funds and Total Expenditure in Jammu and Kashmir (Rs. in Crores)

Year

Total Availability of Funds

Total Expenditure

Expenditure

%age

2005-06

9.02

1.69

19

2006-07

41.54

36.70

87

2007-08

92.79

65.26

71

2008-09

146.52

86.89

59

2009-10

Ending Nov.

140.92

68.36

49

Source : Govt. of Jammu and Kashmir, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, p 382.

During 2007-08 an outlay of Rs. 92.79 crore under the scheme was allocated, out of which Rs. 65.26 crore (71%) had been spent. 281842 numbers of households were issued job cards thereby generating 55.37 lakh persondays. The financial outlay during 2008-09 was Rs. 146.52 crore, out of which Rs. 86.89 crore (59%) had been spent. 498022 numbers of household were issued job cards and 79.25 lakh mandays were generated. During 2009-10 an outlay of Rs. 140.92 crore under the MGNREGS was allocated, out of which Rs. 68.36 crore (49%) had been spent by the end of November. 579222 numbers of household were issued job cards thereby generating 61.18 lakh persondays employment.

Suggestion :

The MGNREGA also promises to provide temporary relief like its predecessor the Maharashtra EGS, but the basic need is to develop “Haemopoietic System” which increases the vitality of the economy and thus its capacity to generate bloods (employment). It is this self-sustaining kind of investment that can take us to the goal of full employment along with the goal of removal of poverty.

The second issue concerns 100 days of employment. It should provide employment till worker wants.  Limit of 100 days employment should be removed.

The third issue pertains to one member of the households. It should not be limited to one member of the household. This limit create conflicts among the family members in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

With the help of this scheme  the administrative  hurdles can be overcome quickly in many parts of Jammu and Kashmir, especially those that have a strong tradition of relief works during land sliding in rainy season as well as a good potential for labour intensive public works. For instance, Rajouri, Ramban, Poonch, Udampur. If the guarantee of employment becomes effective in these districts within a year or two, it will be a major achievement.

Under this scheme corruption is a major danger, issued fake card , manipulation of funds by contractors are exist in many districts of Jammu and Kashmir. There is no doubt that the Employment Guarantee Act does provide clauses for transparency and social audit by gram sabhas, but the moot problem is to ensure that these provisions become effective in plugging  leakages.

MGNAREGA's success depend on the quality of implementation. In some parts of Jammu and Kashmir, this scheme is not properly implemented. Scheme should  implement properly in all the district of J&K. It is very strong Act to provide employment. It can create history to stop migration from rural to urban areas and create really productive assets in the form of infrastructure like roads, irrigation, water harvesting works in the State of Jammu and Kashmir.

Conclusion :

MGNREGA is an instrument of economic growth in the State of Jammu and Kashmir and has contributed a lot in developing the economy, particularly in Poonch and Rajouri. It not only has the capacity to generate large scale employment opportunities in remote and backward areas but also provides employment to a large number in the field of roads, irrigation, water harvesting works related activities in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Thus MGNREGA is the best way to fight the evil of unemployment.

Article name: The national rural employment guarantee act, 2005 essay, research paper, dissertation