Knowledge And Interaction Distinction English Language
Language can be the best tool to help language users with their communication; however, language users might have some problems with their speaking such as being difficult to express themselves clearly or misleading without purpose. For example, in the conversation if speaker uses wrong word, it will give wrong meaning of that context, hearer will be unable to understand the context or misunderstand the context.Language might be able to be separated into two parts which are knowledge of language system and performance. Knowledge of language refers to grammatical rules whereas performance refers to the ability to use and understand the language which can be spoken or written language.
Language users might have some problems with how to use the language in an appropriate way although they have already had a good knowledge of language.The essay will first look at knowledge of the language system, communicative competence, speech acts, indirect speech acts and conversation analysis to justify the distinction between knowledge of language and the ability to engage interaction in an effective and appropriate way.It seems true that the knowledge of language system is one of the important parts of language skills; however, it just the first step to help language users with their conversations. The essay will provide an understanding of knowledge of the language system by looking at morphological processes, syntactic patterns and lexical knowledge.Morphological process is a means of changing a stem, which is the root of a word, to adjust its meaning to fit its syntactic and communicational context.
Morphology is the study of morphemes, which is a minimal unit of meaning or grammatical function of a language and the way in which they are joined together to make words by adding a prefix or a suffix.Free and bound morphemes, free morphemes can stand by themselves as single words such as tour and open whereas bound morphemes cannot normally stand alone such as re, -ist, -ed, and -s. All affixes which are prefixes and suffixes in English are bound morphemes.A lexical and functional morpheme, lexical morpheme is the set of ordinary nouns, adjectives and verb which can be added new lexical morphemes to 'open' class of words. Functional morpheme refers to conjunctions, prepositions, articles and pronouns which almost never been added new functional morphemes so they are described as a 'closed' class of words.Derivational and inflection morphemes, Derivational morphemes are used to make new words or to make words of a different grammatical category from stem such as good > goodness.
Inflectional morphemes are used to show aspects of grammatical function of a word such as singular or plural, past tense or not, comparative and possessive form (Yule, 2006 pp.62-63)Syntactic patterns: Any speaker of any human language can produce and understand an infinite number of sentences. Language users could continue creating sentences by adding another adjective, prepositional phrase, or relative clause. All languages have mechanisms of this sort that make the number of sentences limitless, which can show this quite easily through examples such as the following:John found a book in the library.John found a book in the library in the stacks.John found a book in the library in the stacks on the fourth floor.The rules of syntax are a process to combine words into phrases and phrases into sentences.
The rules specify the correct word order for English is a Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). The examples such as the following:The President nominated a new Supreme Court justice.*President the new Supreme justice Court a nominated.The English sentence in (1) is grammatical because the words occur in the right order whereas the sentence in (2) is ungrammatical because the word order is incorrect in English.The second important role of the syntax is to describe the relationship between the meaning of a particular group of words and the arrangement of those words. The rules of the syntax also specify the grammatical relation of a sentence, such as subject and direct object. On the other hand, they provide the information that permits the hearer to know who is doing what to whom.
If the sentence is reversed, the meaning will be very different. The examples such as the following:Your dog chased my cat.My cat chased your dog.From the pattern of English and the examples above claim to explain that the sentences are not simply strings of words with no further organization. Moreover, the sentence will have a different meaning if language users misplace words in the sentences or reverse the sentences.Lexical knowledge: Syntactic categories include both phrasal categories such as NP, VP, AdjP, PP and AdvP, as well as lexical categories such as noun, verb, preposition, adjective and adverb.
Each lexical category has a corresponding phrasal category. Following is a list of lexical categories with some examples of each type:Noun:
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