The History Of Democratic Nations Criminology
My aim through this paper is to explore the introduction of the College of Policing and how it will be perceived in the UK. The plan to professionalise the police service was followed after a recommendation from a review of police leadership and training that was published earlier this year by Peter Neyroud; a former chief constable of Thames Valley Police. Neyroud says "England and Wales was the first in building the modern police service in 1829, with this approach it will be the first again in building the new police professionalism of the 21st Century". The arrival of the college of policing in the England and Wales would be seen as a very British approach as opposed to the Americanisation of Policing. In these late modern times, the world of policing is at a crucial point and is facing many significant changes and challenges. Police Leaders from Chief Constables to Beat Officers are faced with unprecedented challenges to ensure public safety and confidence, as we face an increasingly diverse set of threats in an era of reduced funding. Professor Sherman says that the need for leadership in police service has never been greater than now. Right now the UK is a need of a radical change in Policing approach and the arrival of a College of Policing will deliver a top quality service that the public deserve.
The arrival of the college of policing will make the system more democratically accountable, legitimate, evidence-based, nationally and internationally coherent and last capable, competent and cost-effective. Peter Neyroud promises that the new change would be free from Governmental interference and where the relationship of a professional body with a charter will be more independent and one that will be able to deal with scandals within the Police with more transparency and which will meet public expectation. Bridge that long gap with the public and give them confidence in being police partners.
Alex Marshall the new CEO of the College of Police promises to professionalise the service by identifying of what works on policing and sharing the best practice among officers. "From day one in my new role I will work to equip all who work in policing with the tools, skills and knowledge they need to succeed. This appointment is a fantastic opportunity to replace bureaucracy and unnecessary policies in policing with practical, common sense approaches based on the evidence of what works." - Chief Executive Officer of the College of Policing.
The College of Policing will move Policing from a legalistic approach to one which is very much based around a framework of legal knowledge, whereby Officers place more emphasis on evidence based policing. There will be a different relationship between Higher Education Authorities and the Police Service. The Police Minister Nick Herbert who also welcomes the incoming change stresses that "in challenging times, we need strong and focused leadership at every level in the police to ensure all the service makes the best use of all its resources"
The college of police through a National Policing Body will put the country in an excellent stead when combating international criminalities with our international partners. This would be an approach that would make tackling Global threats easier. In a period of austerity the college of policing will reduce the cost of policing and bureaucracy and thus allow more police officers on the front line to increase police efficiency.
"Now is the time to return to a preventive policing approach - one which was the foundation of modern policing in 1829. To achieve this shift in approach, the Service will need to be clear about its mission and provide its frontline officers the operational support, technology and training that empowers them to operate in the field as independent professionals. The character and direction of policing really matter - that is what first Commissioners understood all those years ago." - Sir Dennis O'Connor - Chief Inspector of the Constabulary
Training the modern Police Officer stands out as a pertinent issue. This issue questions the importance for education along with the necessary training for Police Officer, Is High School education enough for a Police in the 21st Century? Should Higer education be a requirement for all Police Officers? In describing the job and duties of an Officer as well as the requirement expected of a Policer Officer. In the 1980 Police Officer used a militaristic approach to Policing. This worked for Officers because most of the Officers had a high school education. They focused on the physical attributes of the job and reacted to problems within the community through detailed policy that did not allow officer to make their own decision. The chain of command was vertical and officer did not have discretion. The way the public expect Police officers to perform now. Officers need to be proactive through community policing to ensure a higher quality of life. Officers need to be able to make their own informed decision, understand the law and issues that arise, understand policies and procedures Have a sensitivity on social issues, good communicators and be able to resolve conflict. All these skills require Police Officers to have a higher level of education than a high school diploma. Department cannot offer these skills in training and therefore Officers need to trainined as well in college settings. Officers need at least a bachelor degree to be able to be better thinkers improve writing and oral skills and to have a broader prospective of the world.
An academy of Police will play an integral part in a constabulary's drive to make its areas safer.
To carry on cutting crime in England and Wales and we want the approach we use are on sound evidence. As Forces across the country have delivered on the savings and cuts that were needed, new ideas in policing have emerged and there have been some great successes. The best ideas should happen in every single force. I will work with universities to make sure the approaches we take in policing are sound and evidenced based and everything we do is to protect the public and cut crime. Crime has gone down, we have caught more criminals, public confidence is high and we have delivered all the savings that were required. I will take many of the ideas developed for example the use of mobile technology, returning discretion to front line officers, the use of common sense, the sound judgement to solve problems - Chief Constable Alex Marshall speaks as new Chief Exec Officer Designate of the new College of Policing.
Anew paradigm of policing has emerged and this is associated with the crisis. The new age of Policing right, the new crisis right or the new paradigm right.
Shearing 1992. Private Security company have outnumbered the amount of sworn officers. The time when the public and police used to look down upon private security company is long gone. Private Security company are now as common as McDonalds. Policing is no longer crime deterrents. Now Police works alongside private company and external agencies in this modern societies. Education will prepare Officers to work alongside these external partners for the future of Policing.
The new age is not going to be an age of technology, although technology will be important but rather an age of diversity in policing
We need think of move away to the talk of Policing to a broader concept, one that is more compatible, one which is diverse with loads of networks and external agencies which are now involved. What we are engaged in is the governance of security. This has profound implication not just for the governance of policing but for police organosations.
In terms of the context that we are operating at the moment, the things that affect all of us in public service and also in commercial land is the recession. This has various direct and indirect consequences on the public service. Right across the police service there will be a 13-14 percent reduction over the next three or four years.
Police of decision making, discretion, legitimisation
Policing is being redefined in democratic terms as opposed to liberal ones.
To help police service to meet the government austerity measures
the need to improve efficiency and effectiveness in the service, whilst managing the careful balance between the demand from citizens for visible policing, tackling low level crime, and the continuing need of Forces to focus on serious and organised crime, and counter- terrorism.
Will Officers need licence to practise policing
How will the body be funded? Will Officers have to
The world of Policing is becoming increasing challenging as society evolve.
The research also highlighted an array of barriers facing a majority of constables regarding crime prevention including:
â€¢ An absence of clarity around the mission for policing, with all constabularies using different mission statements which themselves often vary across departments within a force
â€¢ Weaknesses in operational and technological support to officers in the field, such as a lack of consistency
â€¢ Limitations in training, with crime prevention being only one of just under 200 modules that officers receive in their initial training. Policing Today
Nick Herbert, the police minister who is to unveil a plan for the college, said: "It's striking that while doctors, lawyers, teachers and nurses have their own professional bodies, police officers do not. Sunday Times
The plans to "further personalise the police" by Theresa May by establishing a college of policing has been challenged by the Police Federation. According to the Simon Reed who chairs the Police Federation Professional Development sub committee it is unclear if ministers know what they are trying to achieve by it setting up "The Federation are not against and never have been against professional development, but the police are already a highly skilled organisation and there is a huge measure of accreditation already in the police service.
"How will that translate into what this new college will be? Where are the benefits?
"We are unsure. Then there is the cost of putting this together at a time when Government is talking about austerity measures."
Ministers say the new "professional body for policing" will be similar to those which oversee the teaching and medical professions.
It will be charged with training 145,000 officers throughout England and Wales and be responsible for setting professional standards for police on the beat through to the Metropolitan police commissioner
The new college, to be chaired by an independent figure, will eventually receive a royal charter similar to that given to the Royal College of Nursing and other professional bodies.
Nick Herbert, the police minister, said on Sunday that the government wanted to "open up the closed system of police leadership and bring greater diversity and experience at a senior level".
The college of police would allow Officers across the country same training and hence allow Officers to work everywhere efficiently across the country. Using same training and same programs will make the police better equipped to deal with criminal like Ian Huntley. Similar training as proposed by the college of Policing exist already in the French Cantons of Switzerland and having a professional body there is a living proof that the college of policing will deliver when dealing with Serious Organise Crime.
At the moment there is not much information sharing between the Constabularies which borders each others. We do not have an intelligence system in place that can be access by all the forces across the country. Training through the college of policing will allow for such information sharing system between different counties possible.
Many officers joining the service today are university graduates. That said, there are still numerous officers who hold no academic qualifications. In the late modern society, the knowledge and understanding that Police Officers require is greater than ever. The college of policing through education and proper training will transform them into all rounded officers professionally and academically which is very important both for the service and the public. Modern society require Officers to be not only comfortable with modern technologies but to be at ease with a diverse communities than ever before. The public deserve to benefit from a service that has legitimacy, acts according to professional standards and where the use of discretion is used after 'professional judgement and not as a licence'.
Lord Bichard, founder and former Executive Director for the Institute for Government training says "development and professional standards matter and they should not go when resources become scarce. This review will bring better governance and leadership into the command level as well as the better level of Police Service.
Some would argue that the college of policing will produce academics and not necessarily good police officers. Many would argue that the training of an officer should be done on the street and not in a classroom.
The IPLDP (Initial Police Learning Development Programme) was set up to professionalism the job and to address long standing concerns. Now that it has proved to be a failure, many might believed that the new college of policing might also be another failure.
Some have expressed their concerned that the college of policing might be a rebranded NPIA.
Create a raft of bureaucratic guidance for the police service.
In a period of austerity, where all public services are being affected, one would argue if it is the right time to set up this body of policing which would indeed be very expensive. Whilst all the constabularies and being subjected to 20 percent over the next four years cuts across all their departments, it might be seen as hard to justify the cost needed to set up the college of Policing.CONCLUSION
The late modern police need a Police Service with professional people from top to bottom throughout the organisation. The implementation of the College of Policing into the British Police service has arrived at the right time. n, it is very important to have great leaders with good command and business skills at every level of the Service. The only way we are going to have a leading service that the rest of the world is looking up to is through quality education and training at every level. The roll out of the new Professional Body lays ahead many challenges and it will certainly not going to be easy. But once the implementation has taken place, not only bring the Police in line with other professions from being a 'craft' but it will give the public a Police service it deserves.