Public Relations In Society Media

Essay add: 29-10-2015, 11:08   /   Views: 144

Public Relation is related to our live closely and also can called as PR in simply form. Public Relation is an important organization that maintaining the relationship between its clients (commercial peoples, business corporate, associations and other some organizations) with its publics that are audiences. It helps to transfers the messages to audiences from its clients that audiences are able to get it as well. It's also being in charge to managing the image and reputation to its clients. Those scopes of work of Public Relation are included branding, publication, opinion, education, awareness, sales and relationship. There are 4 steps of PR process inside, been called the Marston's four-step "RACE" model to describe the PR process. In those meaning to, R means research, A means action, C means communication and the E means evaluation. Through the sound character and proper performance, public relation is a planned process that can influence public's opinion based on mutually satisfactory two-way-communication that incorporates a lots feedback from target audiences and publics. [Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia] Those successful of the development of public relation was had a lot of histories' background inside of it.

The modern of public relation was founded by Ivy Lee. He was being known as the "father of modern public relation" with credited with developing the modern "new release", also can called with "new press", supported a philosophy consistent with what called the "two-way street "approach to public relation that public relation is including of helping the clients to listen as well as to get the message to their publics. The peak period of press release was in year of 1913 to 1914 by few cases. One of the famous case among from those cases was the case of Pennsylvania Railroad. This case is about the challenge federal regulation of railroad industry that is opposed from federal government. According to the information given, the railroad usually supplied the information with suppressing because of the beset of accidents and strikes of railroad industry, it had been aroused the suspicious of publics to this big business. Wherefore, Ivy Lee was sent reporters to the scene, established press centers, distributed the press releases, and assisted the reporters to obtaining additional information and photographs to transfer the fact to publics. Eventually, he was successfully persuaded for the successful of railroad rate increase from a reluctant federal government. [Stanly J.Baran, 2010]

While in practice, Ivy Lee often engaged in one way propaganda on behalf of clients that were despised by publics, like the other case of Ivy Lee was the case by John D.Rockefeller. This case is about the Colorado coal mine strike erupted in violence in year of 1913 at Rockeller's family and Iron company(CF&I)plant. According to the researching of Lee, he found that the press is kept blaming to the stockholder, John D.Rockefeller about the shooting death of several miners and their wives and children because of labor leaders were effectively getting their views out through talking freely to media. However, the company was did not have any response on it. Ivy Lee was handled the press relationship and successfully convinced Rockeller to visit the scene and to try to talk with the strikers. At the last, the strike ended, and Rockeller was soon being praised by publics because of his sensitive approach. In the year of 1919, Ivy Lee was founded the public relation counseling office names as IVY LEE & Associates and when in the World War I, he was been served as a publicity director and later as Assistant to the Chairman of the American Red Cross. [Stanly J.Baran, 2010]

Edward Bernays who was the nephew of Sigmund Freud that was the first public theorist in modern relation. He also was being known by publics as the "father of modern public relation" compared to Ivy Lee. Bernays conceptualized that emphasized the application of social science research and behavior psychology to formulate campaigns whereas unlike to the Ivy Lee's concept that emphasized on the accurate distribution of news. Bernays was applied the "two-way asymmetric model" that it's included listening to the audiences, but the feedback was the purpose that to formulate the persuasive messages to publics. In the year of 1923, he was authored a book names "Crystallizing Public Opinion" and became a major spokesperson for new public relations through that book, and he was invited by New York University to held the first public relation course at there. [Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

During the First World War, Bernays served as a foot soldier for the U. S. Committee on Public Information (CPI)-the vast American propaganda apparatus mobilized in 1917 to package, advertise and sell the war as one that would "Make the World Safe for Democracy." The CPI would become the mold in which marketing strategies for subsequent wars, on to the present, would be shaped. [Stuart Ewen,1996]

The famous of Bernays's early client was the tobacco industry. In the year of 1919, the advertising campaigns was began with the company's slogan "Reach for a lucky instead of a sweet", is a tobacco's campaign that to persuading woman to taking up the cigarette smoke was same with taking a sweet to that still can keep their figures. Edward Bernay was employed to conduct psychological research aimed at understanding the relationship between woman and cigarettes. At last, he found that woman saw cigarettes as the symbol of freedom that need to be equal to compared to man actually. He was started a publicity stunt that is still heralded as a triumphant coup among public relation practitioners. He arranged for 10 socially prominent young women to enter the 1929 annual Easter Parade down Fifth Avenue as the "Torches of Liberty Contingent". In marching, the debutantes lit their Lucky "torches of freedom" and smilingly proceeded to puff and walk. This was successfully to make a well propaganda on the woman to taking cigarettes smoke. Eventually, the taboo of smoke was dead nationally. [Stuart Ewen,1996] Bernays influence would continue to hold sway well into World War II era.

There also got a publicist that was dreamed up to promote movie with sensation that was Harry Reichenbach. He

was founded a public relations company. The famous case of his client was the case of the Paul Chabas painting, September Morn, a modest nude painting. He was noticed that from an art store window. He had made a deal with the storeowner who had no sold any of his 2000 prints. Reichenbach was hired a couple of boys to "ogle" the picture when showed it to the moralist crusader Anthony Comstock that would be make the angry of Comstock. Comstock Anti-Vice Society took the case to court but lose. At last, the case was aroused the interest to the painting, which sold millions of copies eventually. [Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

The first movie which was promoted by Reichenbach was the Tarzan movie in year of 1918 with setting the loose apes and lions in hotel in New York. While to promote the sequel the Return Of Tarzan, Thomas R.Zann was an actor who was hired by Reichenbach to checked into the hotel. Zann was swinging up the huge crate through the window in his room and ordered fifteen pounds of raw beef that for the guest's pet lion. When the hotel detective and cook saw it, they called for police and Zann was explained to the police and press that he was a huge fan of Tarzan. This was aroused a lot of interests of publics to the movie that Reichenbach was successful to promoted the movie.

[Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia]

George Creel was a former newspaper reporter and also used the public information model that Lee applied in his counseling. He asked by President Woodrow Wilson to organizing massive public relation effort to unite the nation and to influence world opinion during World War I. He was gathered a talented groups from different fields of the symbols of the public opinion and also persuaded newspaper and magazines to contribute some volumes of news and advertising space to encourage Americans to save food and to invest heavily in Liberty Bonds. Other that, he also advised that hatred of the Germans should be played down and that loyalty and confidence in the government should be emphasized. The committee also publicized the war aims that to make the world safe for democracy and make the world war I to end. This massive publicity effort had a deeply effect on the development of public relation by demonstrating the success. [The Evolution of Public Relation, p.50-51]

The fifth of the key figures in public relations is Rex Harlow. He was the first full-time public relations educators. He was taught public relations courses on a regular basic as a professor when teaching at Stanford University's School Education. Other teaching at there, he also conducted multiple workshop around the nation. He also founded American Council on public relation and which become Public Relations Society of American (PRSA) later. In the year 1952, he founded Social Science Reporter that is the first newsletter in the field. At last, he being considered by many to be the "father of public relations research". [The Evolution of Public Relation, p.55]

These 5 of the key figures in our public relation was only the some but there are still got a lot of nice publicist with their classic contributions. We should to appreciate it and purpose taking public relations in the right way. The development of public relations was full with expected that wish to be can be more carries forward in the different fields that can improves the globe's economies.

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