History Of Electric Books Media
A report of the literature shows that electronic books can be categorized into two groups: a hardware and software device used to read content and the content itself.
Borchers (1999) gave a definition to an electronic book as a transportable device that can show a large amount of texts to the reader and allows them to direct to this information.
Lemken (1999) gave an easier meaning of electronic book as a portable device that is used to show digital work.
Since the arrival of computers, professionals have expected the paperless office, the grow of the electronic book, and the mass communication effect of the Internet as the end of the paper book.
According to Liu and Stork (2000), paper used for printing and writing raised 13% from 1970 to 1997, which similar to the declaration by Xerox researchers in 1970 that the starting of paperless office was about to happen.
However, thirty years later, Liu and Stork expected there is a long-term coexistence of paper and electronic documents and when the present generation of E-book becomes known, their expectation is seemed to be more accurate than the Xerox researchers.History and Development
Henke (2001) claim that the history of electronic books begins in 1945 with the design of a Memex.
It is electronic equipment imagined by Vannevar Bush and keep on to nowadays with electronic book readers, such as Rocket eBook and electronic book reader application, such as Acrobat Reader and Microsoft Reader.
Votsch (1999) claimed that while the electronic book production is still new, at least as stated by the coverage in newspaper and magazines, the production is according to the plans that started with theorist, such as Bush and Kay and continued with plans launched with Project Gutenberg.
It is a project contributed to changing public domain books and documents into ASCII files, and to electronic books.
Votsch said that the next step in the electronic book industry was bring out on CD ROM, such as Voyager Corporation, which gave multimedia titles.
These works contributed to the present crop of electronic book readers and electronic book applications.
According to Henke (2001), "The first prototype of a computer hardware device for reading books online was Alan Kay's Dynabook, which Kay proposed in 1968.
It was based on the need for students to be able to access textbooks and course material using a portable computer that students could take with them wherever they needed the information.
Kay's prototype was as much a forerunner of the laptop or notebook personal computer as it was a device to read electronic books." (p.
Lindsay (2008) stated that the postgraduate student, Alan Kay, had the idea of a product he described as a mobile intercommunicate personal computer and as handy as a book.
It was made importance to the growth of a personal computer that made Kay's claim all the more philosophical.
It was sure that nothing similar to his vision will be developed for before nearly twenty years passed.
Lindsay also claimed that Franklin was the first company to supply an ebook type device.
In 1986 Franklin introduced a totally useful electronic dictionary.
This is followed by Sony's introduction of the Electronic Book Player in the early 90's.
This product used CD-ROM technology to give book material for displaying.
The restrictions of this product gave way to the eBookMan.
In both cases, customers were fixed to buy the discs or cartridges in order to view book materials.
Wilson (2004) described the idea of the electronic book was since 1968 when Alan Kay expressed the concept of the Dynabook.
His idea for a palm-size computer equipped with wireless communication was a creative one by taking into account that this was many years before the invention of the personal computer and the Internet.
Kay went on to work at the Xerox Palo Alto Research Centre, building up graphical user interfaces.
At Apple, this is the place where his dream of the Dynabook finally changed itself into actuality in the form of the Apple Newton Message Pad.
It was the world's first PDA.
With the touch-screen function, the Newton was able to display electronic titles in NewtonBook format and hundreds of ebooks were produced, but the production was stopped in 1998 when leaner, lighter PalmPilots and Handspring Visors entered the market.
Kenzie (2010) stated that the electronic book originally started in 1971 with the idea of saving and downloads existing books on a workstation?computer.
The first book stored, which was known as Project Gutenberg, was a copy of the Declaration of Independence.
The growth of the Internet extent the e-book's evolution, and the arrival of mobile e-book readers, such as Kindle, expanded the market for e-books.
Wikipedia (2010) stated that among the earliest common e-books were in the Guternberg Project, began by Michael S.
Hart in 1971.
An early e-book operation were the desktop prototypes for a projected notebook computer, the Dynabook, in the 1970s at PARC, which would be a mobile personal computer which has common function, as well as reading books.
Same ideas were articulated at the same time by Paul Drucker.
Early e-books were normally displayed for some specific areas and a partial audience.
It meant to be read only by a few and dedicated interest groups.
The range of the subject matter of these e-books included technological manual for hardware, producing methods and other subjects.
In the 1990s, the accessibility of the Internet made transferring electronic files much easier, including e-books.
According to Johnstone (1999), "The Dynabook first took form as a computer called Alto from the Xerox PARC laboratory.
Kay referred to this as an interim step towards the Dynabook; the first commercially available version of the Dynabook was the GRID portable personal computer in 1984, which was followed in 1989 by Toshiba's Dynabook.
Though Toshiba used the name Dynabook (only in Japan), the Toshiba Dynabook was one of the first personal computer laptops and was not designed specifically to read electronic books." Kenzie (2010) described that early e-book usually arranged with specific topics meant at a small audience.
The sale in the market was detached because there were a few agreements about formatting software.
They were badly advertised and customer reluctant to reading "on screen" was high.
Consequently, they maintained an "underground" product with little conventional market exists.
He also claimed that the development in the self-distributing market made a significant role to the expansion of the e-book.
The romance novel genre in example played an important role in early e-book sales.
In 2001, the important publishers found that they needed to include the format and publish e-book versions of print publications, which were sold through websites such as Amazon.
The shortage of a relaxing way of reading e-books stalled their extensive recognition.
The beginning of Kindle, the iPad and other mobile devices has made them more accessible.
Moreover, software now formats e-books in a way that imitate paper, giving the reader a more pleasing e-book experience.
Wikipedia (2010) stated that various e-book formats come into existence and grow rapidly.
Some supported by big software companies like Adobe with its PDF format and others supported by self-governing and open sources programmers.
Different readers followed different formats.
Most of them focusing on only one format, and therefore splintering the e-book market even more.
The ruptured market of independents and specialty writers had no general agreement concerning a criterion for packaging and marketing e-books is due to special and restricted readership of e-books.
E-books sustained to have their own underground markets.
Many e-book publishers started to give out books that were in the major public.
At the same time, writers with books that were not recognized by publishers proposed their works online so they could be accessed and visible by others.
Wikipedia (2010) also stated that at a particular time in 2009, now selling models for e-books were being grew and contributed reading hardware was manufactured.
In the month of September, the Amazon Kindle model and Sony's PRS-500 were the leading electronic reading devices.
On January 27, 2010 Apple, Inc.
introduced a many functions device called the iPad and declared agreements with most of the largest publishers that would let Apple to sell e-books.
However, many publishers and writer have not certified the idea of electronic publishing, quoting problem with requirement, the unauthorized use of other work and marketed under a registered trade name.
In July 2010, Amazon.com accounted the marketing of e-book, claiming that it sold 140 e-books for every 100 conventional books including which have no electronic version.Conclusion
In a nutshell, the history of the electronic book is, so far, filled of breakdowns but the present products, which are both hardware and software products, give more assure.
One reason for potential success is that the companies who are selling these products are well financed and have already received recognition in the market, as in the case of Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Another main difference is that, before this, some of the ideas for electronic books never came to final result, like the Dynabook, and other products failed due to technology, such as batteries that needed to be recharged often, but there are now more products offered in the last few years than in the past 20 years.