Human Nature And No Self Philosophy
In the article "The self and Substance Dualism", substance dualists believe that the soul or self is immaterial while the body is a physical property in which our soul resides, like a puppet. It also says that 'I' refers to the immaterial self that has a body. So view in "Self Substance and Dualism" implies that the difference in substance dualist and property dualist shows that there is a gap between the soul and the brain/body of a person. Since from the text a person is defined as "what has a body/brain and has a mental life and character", it is therefore safe to say that the character James Hartley from "The Lost Soul" implies that he is still the same person even after losing his memory. Because the soul and not a physical body/memories makes up a person, James Hartley is still the same person known as the "Axe Fiend" as he cannot be labeled as another person. This makes James Hartley guilty of murdering his wife and children and is in that predicament even if he had lost his memories.
If I was the sheriff in "The Lost Soul", I will tell the amnesic people about his past and what had he done that lead him to this situation. Well, maybe some of us think that we should not tell him the truth which would make him suffer for the rest of his life and could result in self-destroyed. First, he may blame himself for his impetuous actions and secondly, we have to strap him as he will be considered as endangered creature. Despite all of this expected things that may happen when he gets to know his past, his identity which had got him confused the whole day, as well as his charged - murdering his own wife and his two children in their sleep, I insist that it is better to let him know what kind of circumstances he is in now. At least he will be able to know the core reasons of being imprisoned and sentenced to death instead of keep on questioning and making conjecture about what he really is in the past and feel that he had been treated unjustly. As in reality life, we should always face the reality but not keep running away from the real facts. The same thing goes to everyone, we have the rights to know the truth and it is our obligations to face it.
Victor Frankl was saying that human nature refers to how we as human were born with no self and as we grow older, we learn from nature. He mentioned that "... the theory that man is nothing but the product of heredity and environment..." He meant by how or where we were brought up made us who we are now. He also said that the scientists and philosophers make us realize on what to belief. When he wrote, ".. at the desk and in lecture halls of nihilistic scientists and philosophers", he meant by the experiments and research that had been made by the scientist and philosophers that convinced us to belief on how our soul, our minds and everything around us works. Frankl mentioned that we have no souls until we learn something from others. He was an acquainted with the concentration camp that he convinced us to belief what we should belief about souls.
Viktor Frankl says that the theory that man is nothing but the product of "blood and soil" was started "at the desks and in lecture halls of nihilistic scientists and philosophers". All of us know that scientists can be very convincing when it comes to something that we are not able to solve or answer. They had given us tans of solutions to those, which were once a myth, so basically everything they insist will be acknowledged as the truth. For science, things that cannot be identified are considered not exist. As they cannot prove the presence of soul, hence, souls are believed as something superstitious. While for the philosophers, some of them agree the concept of materialism but some of them disagree with it. However, we cannot deny the powerful mind-influencing skills that philosophers possess. Each philosopher may have different point of view towards different matters and their reasons as well as explanation can be logic too. So, there is no hesitation in believing nihilism when we meet with nihilistic philosophers attached with their astounding perceptions.
It is always not true that ignorance is bliss or that knowledge is better than happiness. It may be true for some people and not for others .For example ignorance is bliss are true for children, than for the teenagers and adult, why? This is because the children do not know all sorts of troubles in this world. For instance when a child at a park plays with his or her parents, he or she may not know that they could be kidnapped, get injured or can get into some sort of troubles. This is because they are ignorant of the potential dangers. This frees them from any worry and therefore ignorance is bliss for them (children).
But when we actually move to more matured life; often ignorance is the root of misfortune. For example, after thousands of human exploration and the never ending strive for knowledge, still some people do not go to doctors for checkups fearing of detecting serious disease like cancer. They prefer to live in a state of ignorance to be able to live happily thinking that if they do not know, and then they need not to worry.
There is a famous saying "a drop of knowledge is greater than an ocean of strength"; fifty percent of knowledge is better than hundred percentage of nothing. Knowledge is essential for human, to grow, to progress and for creativity. But knowledge do not always gives us happiness. For example consider the story of the good Brahman. The Brahman was leading a luxurious life and he was wise. But he was not happy. Instead, he felt that his life was humiliating and disgusting because he could not answer some of the eternities, like how soul was made? Or how mind looks like? Whereas the old woman, who was his neighbor was not bothered about such big queries nor was interested to know about her life, Though she lived in a world of ignorance and in a much lesser means compared to the Brahman, she felt much happier in her life.
Both ignorance and knowledge impart happiness as well as unhappiness. Therefore ignorance is bliss meant knowledge doesn't necessarily in happiness.