Legitimizing The Role Of State And Taxation Process Politics
Taxation legitimizing has been central to democratization process as revealed in the central Europe and western in addition to the 20th analysis. Moreover, democracy emerged from the bargain between citizens and rulers over the taxation process. However, currently taxation process has not been connected directly to the demands fro democracy particularly within the Middle East. Furthermore, no rigorous explorations related to the legitimization model especially within the20th century. Nevertheless, legitimization process applicability in the 18th century was found to be ineffective.
Communist states could never compete with democratic West in relation to their economies sizes although certainly the state held at its command exceptional share of such society's wealth. If the 18th and early 19th century authoritarian rulers could still be in the learning process on the ways of building a powerful state in absence of representation benefits, their successors in the 20th century could completely mater the problems involved. In general, representation and taxation deals with a particular political system whereby the authoritarian leaders are observed to share power with the representative assembly. However, monarchs are considered to find this process simpler as compared to other authoritarian rulers.
Currently, authoritarian rulers typically lose their occupations through holding of free parliamentary elections, yet it's not understood the reason fro such risking aiming at increasing the states revenues. Consequently, political and social scientists have in general drawn direct lessons from the history of the Europeans whereby taxation promotes representation and so does the state democracy. Generally, individuals are accustomed to power division where representative institutions are observed to make laws while the executive members will be directing the bureaucracy.
The limit to the interference of the state in the citizens' freedom
Freedom of the press
Press freedom involves freeness to express and communicate via various electronic published materials and media. Basically, this freedom implies lack of interference by the overreaching state. However, their preservation can be sought through legal protections or constitutional protections. In respect to governmental information, a particular government can distinguish the materials which are public or which may be protected from public disclosure on the basis of particular information classification. Classification may be in form of sensitivity, secrecy or information relevance in a bid to protect national interest. Majority of the governments also are subjected to legislation of information freedom that is employed in defining national interest ambit. Freedom of speech is always covered by similar laws to press freedom hence offering equal treatment to published and spoken expression.
Freedom of movement: Mobility rights
Travelling rights are normally constituted within the constitutions of the various states. In basic terms, this freedom entails that a particular citizen to a certain state has rights to leave such state and travel anywhere else. Consequently, such travelling must be accompanied by proper documentation, freedom to return to the state of origin, travel, reside or work within any state the individual wishes. However, such choices must be without any interference from that particular state. Some advocates who support immigrant's rights assert that individuals have fundamental mobility rights both across states and across nations. Nevertheless, the government can interfere in such movement freedoms fro particular reasons. Restrictions on freedom of mobility internationally are observed to be prevalent.
Apparently, most countries limit freedom of movement on minors. Penal law are capable in modifying this particular right as its normally applied to individuals who are charged or convicted of specific crimes. Similarly, in some countries restrictions have historically been limiting women movement, disfavored racial group or to particular social groups. Basically, legal and practical circumstances may be the reason behind such restrictions to human freedom to movements. For instance, a permissive nation to travelling may impute restrictions on movement during time for wars or lawless conditions. Other restrictions to movement may arise from wage tariff barriers, official identity cards, and personal responsibilities in registering change of address with particular state authorities or from barriers on local or regional protectionist on house building or settlement.
Academic freedom gives rights to institution to manage their own curriculum or academic affairs in absence of governmental interference. For example, colleges can determine the subjects to be taught, the instructor who can teach particular subject and establishment of admission criteria. Similarly, the freedom may involve determining the graduation requirements, development of own academic mission plus the college priorities. Such independency facilitates the power separation which can discourage the government from dictating positions to be adopted by universities or even promote particular causes. In addition, such freedom ensures the government does not use educational institutions as propaganda apparatus.
Secondly, academic freedom allows faculty members to engage in research processes on controversial subjects in absence of fear of reprisal. However, this does not allow professors to introduce controversial matters in their teaching which is not related to the subject researched. Academic freedom allows scholarship and teaching through elimination of concerns related to personal safety. This freedom is aimed at particularly fostering ideas exchange within the community of scholars. However, the freedom does not protect any individuals from utterances and behaviors inclusive of libel, slander, bullying, lying on the curriculum vitae or even conducting a class in a an irresponsible manner.
Freedom of Religion
Freedom of religion implies lack of interference by the government of particular religions progress and avoiding a single religion to dominate the government. Similarly, this freedom would prevent imposing of particular religion beliefs of the entire society. Freedom of religion prevents the government from passing laws which can establish official religion or create a preference of a particular religion against another. In this freedom, the government cannot interfere with an individual's religion practice.
Freedom of Speech
Freedom of speech involves rights to speak freely in public as well as in private. The freedom covers all expressions inclusive of magazines, televisions, newspaper, movies, radio or electronic documents. However, although speech freedom is not absolute, the protection of such freedom is broad and falls under the government mandate.
Right to Assemble
Right to assemble allows individuals to gather peacefully with an aim of exchanging ideas or protest peacefully against particular political, social or economic conditions to demand reforms. For example, in the US, most public gatherings proceed peacefully in absence of government interference through policemen or government officials. However, sometimes right to assemble may be interfered when the police officers arrest individuals during demonstrations which seem to threaten or turn violent. Moreover, right to assemble is not absolute rights since majority of towns or cities may legally regulate places, timings and manner of assembling.
Social planners' rights to act for the overall welfare of the society
Benevolent social planner is equipped with the rights to behave in a manner that work fro the welfare of the entire society. However, such a social planner can leave out some individuals who may seem to only concentrate on their selfish ambitions or are already established such as the rich or the wealthy. Worsening poverty levels within some nations may be the trigger fro such initiatives. Moreover, some individuals are observed to get richer while the poor are getting poorer and poorer. Social planner must therefore work towards equality between the rich and the poor through considerable resources allocations. Furthermore, they should ensure those resources are disposed in a way that they are able to improve economic and social conditions of all individuals in the particular society. A benevolent social planner has the responsibility and right of ensuring proper management of the available resources to help translate large inflows of funding towards more rapid economic and social growth. Apparently, poor social conditions have originated from economic malaise which has prevalent in many economies. Optimistic social planners should facilitate mobility within the various economic and social policies which may involve mobility from poverty, unemployment and mobility out of unproductive regions.
Social planners' interventions will allow fro employment opportunities whereby jobs will move toward the needy individuals while at the same time moving the unemployed towards the jobs. However, successful individuals must not be selected but allowed to appoint themselves within a competitive environment. Poor economic and social conditions are highly contributing to social stress among the urban settlers resulting to youth suicides and violent crimes. Additionally, the status quo is not sustainable while income per capita is reducing day by day. Similarly, inequality has been observed to intensify due to unequal due to income disparities. However, social planner should not neglect the needs of particular groups completely since they contribute greatly to the national economy. For instance, the rich are observed to contribute the highest levels of taxation which assist the running of the government's welfare extensively. This is particularly to those governments where taxation is paid on the basis of the income level such that the more an individual earns, the higher the taxation. From all the discussions above, its clear that the key and fundamental role of the state is society's welfare ensuring satisfaction of all the society members.
Voting system: Pluralism
In facilitating positive social welfare, there is need to institute individuals within the government who are competent. Such individuals can be best elected by the citizens through the plurality voting system. Basically, this voting system ensures the best individuals are elected to the top most seats, thus supporting the voting rights of the citizens. Plurality will ensure a single winner takes the position and such an individual is selected on the basis of the best knowledge of the voters. One major advantage of this voting system is facilitation of constituency links, regionalism plus accountability on state issues to the public. Consequently, this creates commitment among the elected persons making them more responsible. In addition, plurality ensures the selected candidate is the preferred by the largest group of voters implying that the best individual is elected.
Furthermore, plurality allows for moderation since voters will cast their votes towards the most preferable choice for victory. For this reason, voters have a centrist position which is fairly moderate. At the same time, more information is derived from the voters where the design explicitly favors individuals who perfectly fit such positions. Presence of few minorities in this voting system is a positive aspect towards the welfare of the society. This is because this voting system supports two party systems of governance. Moreover, this is beneficial in that parliamentary governments or any other coalition can typically be more stable within multi-party systems. As a result, stable government will ensure government responsibilities are run effectively un-interfered hence the society is properly attended to. Similarly, plurality ensures a strong government is put in place due to the voting of individuals to governmental positions through majority voting. Nevertheless, multi-party system can shun fair representation towards positive 3rd parties, women and racial minorities, among others.
Majority of individuals think democracy workability is possible via offering voters a chance to elect a candidate of their choice. However, this is not true since a perfect functioning democracy will present both candidates with imperfection. Apparently, there are varieties of democracy where some deliberately avails better representation plus extra freedom fro citizens than others. When democracy is improperly legislated, it may cause shuns of uneven political power distribution, whereby a system rule branch can accumulate power and thereby become harmful towards the democracy process itself.
James Surowiecki, the New York business writer observed that under the right conditions, democracy was absolutely the perfect way of making the right decisions. In his book referred to as the wisdom of crowds, the writer shows that some individuals are smarter than others and also that collective wisdom contributes greatly towards shaping of businesses, societies, nations and economies. James demonstrates a dubious idea that diversified and large group of non-experts through application of common sense and guess will consistently present better judgments compared to other groups of individuals.
The mob fear
For long, democracy has had bad reputation majorly due to the synonymous mob rule. Committed political philosophers feel threatened when masses of individuals makes demonstrations in the streets in violence and looting behaviors. An individual within a crowd would do more terrible things than what he would do alone, where sole responsibility would be inflicted for misconducts. Philosophers are concerned about the voting dignity in all circumstances whether in ballot boxes or in casual circumstances. As such, individuals should take the voting responsibility seriously.
Generally, crowds are the wisest at offering solutions to specific problems within democratic system. Normally, they are better positioned in guising definable results such as who will win the elections. Similarly they are better placed to make decisions in circumstances of uncertainties. In democracy crowds can be the most effective for opinions' diversity, decentralization, independence and aggregation.
Groupthink aspect is known to be a pervasive danger in democracy particularly where the elites gain prestige and have the ability to cause influence in the thinking of others via authority alone. Democratic Party is within the groupthink miasma enforcing though uniformity with an up surging rigor hence resulting to making of ludicrous choices. Such a party would be targeted to achieve legislative goals or maybe win future elections. Apparently, it's important to note that its not unity but diversity that large groups can make wise and collective decisions.
Rights to vote
Voting is a critical way in which individuals can influence governmental decisions making procedure meant for citizen interest. According to human rights, every individual has aright to vote through taking part within the government of ones own country directly or even via freely chosen representatives. Voting rights entitles an individual to equal aces towards public service within a particular nation. Voting process is normally expressed in genuine and periodic elections which can be held through secret ballot or other equivalent voting procedures. Furthermore, voting rights are recognized as fundamental human rights. However, several individuals are restricted from exercising their right during if such individuals are non-citizens, minorities, the homeless, the youth, the disabled and criminals, among others. Other reasons may include poverty, intimidation, unfair election process and illiteracy.
Conditions under which dictatorship could work
Generally, dictatorship cannot work effectively in absence of assistance from the individuals being ruled. Help from those people give dictatorship security and maintenance to political power. For this government to perform effectively, people being ruled must believe the legitimacy of the regime and also the perception of the moral duty to obey the government. Similarly, such government regime can work if they have knowledge and skills which would facilitate performance of particular actions. Material resource are also essential fro the effectiveness of this kind of regime. The number of obedient citizens, human resources and their cooperation is also very critical in supporting the Dictatorship successful performance. However, all these conditions depend on the regime acceptance, obedience and submission of the entire population. Additionally, is also depends on the cooperation of the many people and institutions within the particular society which are normally not guarantees.
Conclusion and recommendations
From the above discussion, state government role in the society welfare has been presented to be very critical. However, government can interfere with the citizens' rights ranging from freedom of expression, movement and academic rights, among other rights. Moreover, every individual or citizen has a right to vote for government leadership of own choice except in particular circumstances where such rights are restricted. Proper governance can however be achieved through application of the pluralism type of voting system. Social planners need to ensure all citizens are served equally without discrimination through facilitation of equal distribution on state's resources. Furthermore, though democracy has been perceived to be the best type of governance, it does not work unless the process is perfectly legislated. However, dictatorship can be observed to work at particular conditions such as acceptability of the regime and obedience to the regime. State governments therefore need to be devoted and committed towards meeting the societal needs satisfactorily on equal footing.
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