History Of Democratic Peace Theory Politics
Democracy peace theory refer to the democratic states dont fight and go to the war with each other. Its also known as Democracy Peace or Theory of Peace. In a conflict between democracies, by the time the two states are militarily ready for war, diplomats have had the opportunity to find a nonmilitary solution to the conflict" (Gartzke 2). Now, there're two accepted evidence: 1. Because of the state has their own self-organizing systems and therefore fundamentally different from the other state, democracies do not fight each other anymore. 2. They are as prostrate to conflict with the nondemocracies. "...dyadic effect, which implies that democracies are only more peaceful with one another, and not a monadic effect, which would mean that democracies are more peaceful in their relations with all countries" (Rousseau, 512). There are several explanations for this theory such as: Structural Explanation, Normative Explanation, Criticism of the Theory, Monadic Explanation, and Dyadic Explanation. In this situation, we only mention on two main points are Structural Explanation and Normative Explanation because these two explanation will provide clear evidence why democracy spread could be result in great democratic peace and made it difficult for governments to go to the war without the electorate. Now, first we will focus on structural explanation, there are two main variables of the democracy peace theory, the institutions of the representative government, which hold the elected officials and decision-makers responsible to all the people who are allow to vote, it make the most part of the war unattractive choice for the government and the citizens. The democratic leader takes a response such as electoral before deciding to go to war. All citizens and elected representative have the right to reject or accept all the decision making which made by the government; thus, it's difficult for the leaders to go to the war. Second, the normative explanation, the people who support this theory share the idea that democratic and liberal values best explain the peace that still exists between democratic states. From this view, democratic political culture support the peaceful means of conflict resolution which are increase beyond the process of the democratic peace to other democratic states because leaders in both states hold their expectation that their counterparts will be able to work successfully for their differences peacefully. The important thing is that if a particular state has "enlightened citizens and liberal-democratic institution", unless the other state look it as the real liberal democracy then the democratic peace statement won't be hold. For example, Americans didn't consider English as democratic state in 1812 because at that time England was a monarchy and liberals also didn't consider it as a democracy because of using the slavery on the other state during the American Civil War. Some scholars thought the explanation of democratic peace theory came from the combining of these two viewpoints. Therefore, the practice of the democratic peace theory is that free and fair election, free press, competitive between the two parties, and the rule of the law.
Democracy contribute to peace maintenance
Democracy also led the role in both peacekeeping and conflict resolution by promote the democracy throughout the state. Democracy promotion is a strategy or instrument utilized to establish one specific type of government (Julia, 2006). According to A. Lincoln, government of the people, by the people, for the people (1863). Therefore, in democracy system, citizens interest come first then the state interest, generally through free and fair elections. It also includes the social justice because the democracy distribute to all the citizens of a state. There are two ways to promote democracy. Firstly, the democracy can be promoted in positive measures. It refers to the enforcement of democratic institutions and procedures as well as the participation of civil society. It means that the state will support directly to the core of democratization. For example, the assistance from the electoral, the support from the parliaments, etc. Or it can be support indirectly by its output of the political system. For example, economic policy programs or creation of basic services. By contrast, the democracy can be promoted in negative measures. It refers to the using of force applying through economic or political conditionally. The powerful measures often point at protecting democracy. For example, in the case of bursting with the democratic order in a specific state. Finally, whether democracy promotion is an effectively or not in case of build peace or it depends on the willingness of the internal actors to distribute power and reform institutions as well as governance structures.
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