The Study Of Political Science Politics

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Democracy in many Africa nations has been identified based on the manner unto which Africa countries such as Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda among others. Kenya has developed programs whose purposes are to fight the right of the minority class of people in the country. This is a clear indication how Kenya has incorporated democracy in the study of political science. Country Kenya has reduced the study of political science into issues of democracy based on the government and society relations. Democracy is a sophisticated process whose establishment is not guaranteed by multiparty system of governance. The implication of regular multiparty elections does not necessarily account for democracy in any African nation. Many Africa countries practiced one party system after the colonial era until 1980s when a wipe of multi-party system came into practice. Starting from 1980s, many countries in Africa moved from one part state into multi-party state but this attached little interest in the establishment of democratic state among the Africa nations. The study of Kenya governance will describe how the study of political science has been associated with democracy state or democracy matters in the country. The year 1992 was an important year in Kenya, it is considered as a turning point in Kenyan state of governance. [] 

The political party formation concept gained growth in 1992 when country Kenya shifted from one party state into multi-party state. This clearly indicates how democracy has been achieved in Kenya. Political leaders had the freedom to form other parties to fight for governance. Initially KANU was an example of one party system under the leadership of Mzee Jomo Kenyatta that ruled over Kenya. Mzee Jomo Kenyatta ruled Kenya from independence until 1978 when he died and hand over the leadership to Daniel Arap Moi. [] During his reign, Kenya experienced a dictator form or type of leadership. Many clandestine movement increased pressure on the Kenya government based on one party system. The clandestine movements demanded for a country or nation free from dictatorship advocating for political free zone. Kenya government was supposed to restructure its political base and address for multi-party system. The problem with dictatorial regime is that it found it ambiguous to content political reforms pressure emanating from the clandestine movement. During the dictatorial regime, Kenya did not practice democracy and thus why several international communities's had little concern in its interactions with Kenyan government. The emergency of political parties in 1991 describes how Kenya has reduced the study of political science into issues of democracy. In 2007 general elections in Kenya, a conflict developed between the ruling and opposition party leading to the formation of a coalition government. The emergent opposition parties will use the current political system in Kenya to highlight political challenges confronting multi-party system with the practice of ethnicity culture and personal ambitions for ruling. [] 

Democratic state in Kenya

After the independence, Kenya was one party state under the rule of KANU that attempted to bring division in political parties with an aim of remaining in power. Its rule offer pressure to other political parties who discovered ideology of nity to shake off KANU from power. The political parties collaborated with the civil society putting pressure on the Kenyan government that later resulted in the concept of multi-party system in the beginning of 1991. Kenya experienced tremendous political reforms between 1991 and 2007 general elections. The research conducted by the political science students in the university of Nairobi have indicated that all political parties in Kenya are riddled with ethnicity and personal ambitions for ruling schism. This summarizes the reason why political unity among political parties is ceasing. Kenya government faces many impacts on political, economic and social changes emanating from the disunity within political parties. [] Decision making process in the present Kenya government is deterred by the conflict existing between the prime minister and the president because both are after personal ambitions for ruling rather than the ambitions to serve the society. The two leaders seem to differ in their decisions the reason why country's economy is deteriorating. ODM and PNU form the coalition government of Kenya but are said to fight for power. In Kenya, democracy is demonstrated by means through which the country conducts its elections. The civil societies in Kenya are the determinants of Kenyan government. The civil societies forms basis of Kenyan political system because all political leaders are appointed by civil societies all over the country. Kenya people consider voting their rights and thus why the government has little influence on the voting process. Right to vote has empowered Kenyan people to participate in political process in determining the country's leadership. In the today's Kenyan government, democracy is demonstrated by the flexibility exercised by the political parties. Political leaders have the freedom of movement within the political parties. [] 

The 2010 Kenyan constitution allow party officials to shift from one party to another without restrictions and thus the reason why many politicians in Kenya are quitting from ODM and Joining PNU or forming other new political parties for 2012 elections. This political freedom highlights the practice of democracy in the prevailing Kenya regime. It is from this point of view the study of political science has been reduced into issue of democracy in Kenya. From diverse political reforms, Kenya citizen are able to elect leaders of their choice with no interference from the government. Back to KANU regime, the political power lies in the hands of one party system that expressed dictatorship leadership. KAU, FORD among other political parties found it difficult to struggle for power. These parties were disadvantaged by their financial instabilities that favored KANU. Based on this point, the stronger political parties manipulated the weaker ones by buying their members hence interfering with political strength. Democracy is demonstrated by the way, in which poor political parties form alliances and coalitions with other political parties. For instance, PNU is a composition of many political parties such as Narc-kenya, Ford Kenya, among others. The present Kenya regime offers a potential base for coalition and alliances among different political parties. According to the Kenyan constitution, the current regime has practiced democracy in politics since there is a law hindering a leader from contesting for third time or round, this was evident in 2002 general election. Serving more than two terms in power is offensive or against the Kenyan constitution. The Kenyan government has established laws to govern the governance or government process. All Kenyan citizens are free to participate in general elections after duration of five years in power. This clearly describes how the study of political science in Kenya has been reduced into issue of democracy. Other parts of Africa continent have achieved democracy for instance, the case study of southern Sudan walk against Hussein Mubarak ruling in January 2011 general elections. Sudan people wanted a new regime where they could practice democracy rather than that of Mubarak. Colonial era lacked political freedom the reason why Kapenguria six suffer from severe detainment without trials as a tool to hinder them from airing their political views. The current Kenya regime contemns this by granting people the opportunity to share political views and opinions. Gender sensitivity is recognized hence empowering women to compete for power. This is evident by presence of women such Charity Ngilu, Martha karua, Margaret among others in parliament. [] 

Q2.What defines a state.

A state is a complex entity composed of three elements that include territory, incorporating government and the civil society. From a political point of view a state is a political entity made up of human community that embark on the use of forces to claim dominance of power and ruling. In a state, a particular community or tribe rule over other communities considering itself as super community. In Kenya, the 2007 general elections gave was to onset of conflict between the people and the ruling class. The struggle channeled political process into a state of political science whereby issues concerning electoral process emanated. The struggle demonstrated how the issue of political science came to be. According to the Kenyan constitution, electoral process should be fair, free and transparent to all Kenyans. Bias in electoral process resulted from government interference and thus why results for 2007 general elections were unaccepted by the Kenya citizens leading to coalition government. People's right to vote is documented in the 2010 Kenyan constitution and it grants a person the freedom to vote regardless of the locality. Kenya is a plural society with certain category of people who claim to have marginalized by the government hence hindering their participation. What happened after 2007 general election contributed to political science because it determines the position occupied people and government? People and ruling class put pressure on the electoral commission to conduct another election. [] 

The struggle for power came in when ODM decided to take power by force due to biased electoral process. Kenyan politics are tribal based and thus why the struggle for power between people and the ruling class contributed into political science. In this regard, different tribes fought each other seeking for a clear a venue for power. It has been evident that political stability of each nation is influenced by flawed electoral process. Most of Africa countries practiced ethnicity nationalism whereby politics are tribal based. Kikuyu community is an example of a state community whereby it struggle for dominance of power. The dominance of power by kikuyu community came because it was the first community to produce president in Kenya. Mzee Jomo Kenyatta appointed Daniel Arap Moi to be his successor with a condition to hand over the ruling to the Kenyatta's family. Moi supported Uhuru Kenyatta during 2002 general elections whereby Mwai kibaki who is a kikuyu emerged winner. The dominance of power by kikuyu community has contributed much on Uhuru's political stand then reason why uhuru persist in contesting for presidency. [] 

In Conclusion, democracy has been evident after the colonial era when Kenya became a multi-party state. People are the key determinant of the Kenyan government through voting process. The current Kenya politics are tribal based with elements of ethnicity and personal ambitions for power. Kikuyu community is an example of a state in Kenya and thus why many political aspirants are from kikuyu community.

Work Cited

Murunga, Godwin and Nasong'o Shadrack. (2007). Kenya: the struggle for democracy. London: Zed Books, 2007

Mutua. Makau. Kenya's quest for democracy: taming leviathan. New Jersey: Rienner Publishers, 2008.

Mwakikagile, Godfrey. Ethnic politics in Kenya and Nigeria. Hauppauge: Nova Publishers, 2001

Njogu. Kimani and Oluch-Ounya Garnette. Cultural production and social change in Kenya: building bridges. Achimota College: African Books Collective, 2007

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