Clean Energy In Trash Waste To Energy
Background - cogeneration of methane from landfills. Limitations of current technology. For over two centuries, the United States and other developed countries have profited from inexpensive and abundant fossil fuels. Oil, coal and natural gas have afforded us richness and great affluence, while the cost of energy has remained moderately low.
Nevertheless, the previous few years have brought out a consciousness that our unrestricted using up of fossil fuels has added to global warming (Themelis 43). That consciousness has also revealed another fact; the "golden era" of inexpensive energy is coming to a halt. Because of global shortage and unavoidable emissions laws, fossil fuels will keep on being more and more costly.
Saving funds on energy costs and saving the earth will necessitate us to alter our "business as usual" approach and cut our reliance on fossil fuels. We can start by advancing energy effectiveness and integrating renewable energy supply into our residence, business and cities.The massive augmentation in the quantum and variety of waste material produced by human actions and their potentially destructive effects on the broad environment and the general health of the public, have led to a growing consciousness about a burning need to accept scientific ways for safe dumping of wastes. While there is an apparent requirement to diminish the production of wastes and to reprocess and reuse them, the technologies for generation of energy from the garbage can play a critical function in extenuating the issues (Stevenson 63).
In addition to the recovery of sizeable energy, these technologies can ensure there is a considerable drop in the general waste quantities necessitating final discarding. These wastes can better be managed for secure dumping in a restricted method while meeting the general pollution control norms. The social-economic setting, level of industrialization and climatic conditions, influences waste production rates. In general, the more a society is economically prosperous and the higher the population of urban areas, the larger the quantity of solid waste generated.
The lessening of the volume and mass of solid waste is a critical problem especially when considered vis-à-vis the availability (or lack of it) of ultimate disposal sites in parts of the world. Although numerous waste and byproduct recovery processes have been brought in, the bio-chemical conversion method, including Methane generation and Cogeneration in a lesser scale Technology, are preferred for wastes in the United States.Landfill gas collectionThe most uncomplicated and the oldest, time-honored garbage disposal system, landfill gas collection, is still extensively used in the US. This is due to its perceived low cost of working, availability in a lot of locations, and appropriateness for most solid wastes. The choice of managing wastes while generating energy is dependent on several factors. Chief among these factors is the size and depth of the landfill and climatic conditions.
The landfill must hold in excess of a tone of waste in place and must be 30 feet deep or more. The landfill also ought to be in a place that has a rainfall capacity of more than 25 inches yearly. Landfill gas, i.e. methane is trapped using a landfill gas collection well.Methane gas, CH4, is a greenhouse gas that can remain in the atmosphere for a period ranging from ten to fifteen years. While this time is short when compared to that of CO2, methane is twenty percent more efficient at locking in heat than carbon dioxide.
Consequently, the rising level of methane release into the atmosphere is a growing concern to global warming. Methane, or CH4, is emitted both by the natural environment and through various human activities. Landfills are the top synthetic emitters of methane accounting for roughly 23% of US synthetic emitters of methane. Landfill gases are generated from the anaerobic breakdown of waste.
Gases that are generated from landfill plants are roughly 50% Carbon Dioxide and 50% Methane. Generally, landfill gases account for roughly 2% of greenhouse gases emitted as waste. Methane, a natural gas, contains roughly 500 Btu per average cubic foot and therefore, landfill emissions could be trapped and made into constructive energy. Many large landfills in the US started trapping methane and converting it to energy.
This has been popularized by the regulations requiring that landfills collect the gas. After such trapping, it either can be converted to energy or flared- which in essence is burning the gas.Chemical Reaction of burning MethaneCH4
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