Diversification Of Efforts Towards Establishing Sustainable Communities

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This paper focuses on the sustainable solutions for creating energy-efficient communities and it is based on the following hypothesis: sustainable districts and communities participating aspects and processes, as well as their results (that is to say Integrated Energy Systems - IES) are based on different efforts, thus they have met different difficulties on the way through.Inside of these chapters you will be provided 2D diagrams as well as some of the statistical data showing effort-process towards best available sustainable solution on each case study. Goal of this study is to bring useful information about the diversification of available efforts that were based on different archetypes = situation and characteristics at the specific site.Keywords - integration systems, energy saving, sustainable communities, power consumption, energy solutions, district heating, urban archetypes, sustainable development;page 41.

INTRODUCTION AND PROBLEM STATEMENT 1.1 BackgroundThe main cause of world's extremely unsustainable energy depletion was always connected with the field of buildings' consumption. This applies to almost every kind of energy: elec- tricity, heat and water consumption. We can divide world energy consumption into 4 groups (by sectors): industrial, transportation, residential and commercial.

The US Energy usage chart1 (figure 1) shows that residential consumption is taking 21% of overall energy usage. What is more, while incorporating integrated energy saving systems that are maintained wisely we could decrease both transportation and residential consumption, not ignoring the fact that sustainable systems can incorporate all of those fields, combining power for whole city, that is to say for residential function merged with the commercial and industrial workplaces.In such situation "Sustainable Residential Development is perhaps [...] most ambitious effort to tackle the inefficiencies and inequities of the way we build [...]"2. This could be perhaps an impossible task, but combining the effort of many, it could be in some cases, in some percents and with an enormous effort - achieved.1.2 FocusMain efforts for improving energy efficacy:

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passive / active housing using recycled and reused materials incorporating new technologies Integrated energy systems (IES)figure 1: U.S. energy usage by sector (2004)1The focus of this paper is to clarify the last of the efforts - Integrated Energy Systems. The main goal is to try to explain the difficulties at the first stages of maintaining of the systems themselves. IES, basically "integrate distributed generation with thermally-activated technologies for heat- ing and cooling. IES, also known as cooling, heating and power (CHP) systems"3.

This is the most efficient energy saver and the most realistic approach amongst four listed above, because in most cases it is already containing other ones (and even more, depending on the project).It was economically relevant for the most classical systems that have already been existing to set up n field either of industrial district or for city that was consuming a few megawatts. New technologies with lower output (small generation technologies, fuel cells, micro turbines) it now became more suitable for smaller communities and districts.1.3 FactorsWhat is more, when we are talking about locating power supply or generation on site (or at least in the neighbourhood), we lower the costs of transportation

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