The Feasibility Of Waste Management In Lebanon
Lebanon's population accounts to 4.224 million people as of year 2010 that produce 1,380,000 tons of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) per year; this means 3 tons per person. "The composition of MSW is highly organic (63%) while the remaining (37%) is constituted of paper, cardboard, plastic, glass, metals and others." (Merhebi, & Hickman, 2004) In the absence of a proper Solid Waste Management strategy, the Lebanese citizens are burdened with the bad odors and diseases spread by the dumped wastes. The services follow the "collect and dump" approach, with no set recycling plan.MSW is a critical environmental and financial challenge that demands the priority from both private and public sectors. It even causes social problems that people residing near disposal sites suffer from on daily basis.On the other hand, the Lebanese electricity division is facing a crisis of its own; it is unable to support the people with their demands.
Although the costs of the electricity expenditure is extreme compared to other countries as shown in Figure 1.Figure 1 Regional Tariffs in US¢/kWhIt falls short on supplying the reliable electricity needed in houses, companies or even streets. Electricity is becoming a drain on the governmental economy and working its way to increase the country's deficit. This is actually cutting money out of other sectors' pockets and placing Lebanese finance in a dangerous unstable risk.The state we have reached symbolizes the deficient Lebanese situation and its government's independency and accountability on other countries to aid it out of its mess.A solution must be put into action to help Lebanon with these two critical crises that affect its people both environmentally and economically.
A Solid Waste Management Program simply suggests a technology to convert garbage into light. The conversion is based on two categories: biological conversion and gasification. These gases are ultimately used in the electrical generation process.
In the absence of a solid waste management strategy in our country, wastes have accumulated over the years. The accumulation was due to natural and socio-political events and the lack of recycling capabilities during the civil war. The three major accumulation sights are in Normandie, Bourj Hammoud, and Saida. Other factors that lead to the formation of the garbage mountain in Saida are the earthquake and the Israeli invasion.
In 1956, the "Chhim" earthquake destroyed a huge portion of the old city and in 1982, the Israeli invasion lead to a total destruction of the western part of the city. The debris resulting from these destructions had to be thrown somewhere so the southern part of the city was chosen as an ideal place.In Normandie, the public and the private sector have decided to spread the garbage into the sea in order to extend the shore and create a park on the garbage location. On the other hand, the situation was different in Bourj Hammoud where the government has decided to plant the garbage mountain with trees in order to limit the explosions and fires that where occurring due to the gases released.
Although some attention was provided to solve those problems, no one gave importance to Saida's landfill site which is still accumulating and leading to more environmental disasters.
This project's objective is to reduce the Municipal Solid Wastes in Lebanon and at the same time to produce electric power to compensate the gap we live in nowadays.The goals of this project are to:a. Reduce MSW and pollution in general in Lebanonb. Generate Electricityc.
Solve the social and medical problems that residents in the disposal areas suffer from daily.d. Supply new job opportunities at the new facilitiesc. Gas utilization units
Reports estimate that Lebanon demands around 8,239,380 MWh today, with an expected increase of 60% by the year 2015. Elecricite du Liban supplies about 67% of this need at the maximum. This project promises to supply about 83,000 MWh per year using a 20 MW power plant. This will decrease the CO2 emissions and generate fertilizers used for anaerobic processes.
This will all return money and nourish the country's economy.
The project requires an area of around 28000 m3 and it has been decided to construct the power plant in a non-inhabitant region. Such specifications were only found in the Bekaa Valley. The location of such specification is identified by red block in Figure 1.Figure 2. Land for plant development
General Description of the Proposed Project
About the Project
Project Title: Converting MSW Waste into ElectricityLocation: Bekaa
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