The New Waste Strategy Of England
Building on recent best practice from authoritative sources such as DEFRA and WRAP, producing a cost effective 3 year waste prevention plan for household waste in a named local authority (WDA)
Waste prevention and minimization has been a challenging field since the "waste strategy 2000" proposed by England. The new waste strategy of England gives predominant priorities to waste prevention and minimization and the gradual progress into 'zero waste'. In this view new strategies, policies and legislation system has been developed and researched to achieve sustainable waste management which is empowered by local authorities, Governmental and non-governmental organizations, business enterprises and community. The clear view protocols are set out by DEFRA and WRAP to support local authorities.
This article aims at producing a cost effective waste prevention plan for a selected WDA (Northampton) to minimize waste generation and enhance waste prevention. This has also lies the fundamental cost effective waste minimization without affecting environmental sustainability based on the best management practices on WRAP, DEFRA, WIP and BREWKeywords: Waste Minimisation, Pro environmental behavior, WRAP, DEFRA, NRWF, WIP
What waste is, and where it comes from?
It is estimated that 430 million tons of waste a year is produced in UK that is projected to be plenty enough to fill the Albert Hall in London every hour. Out of it municipal solid waste comprises of 7% (29 million tons) which is produced in homes, by schools, and small businesses (Defra, 2004). Commercial waste, industrial waste, construction and demolition waste and agriculture waste is also included in the major sources of waste. From the definition of Waste Framework Directive (European Directive (WFD) 2006/12/EC), waste is "any substance or object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard" (DEFRA, 2007).
Figure 1 shows the sources of waste in the UK and components of municipal solid waste.
Figure 1.1.a: Waste in the UK
Source: Defra, 2004.
Waste composition data for England
In England, 28.7 million tons of municipal waste was collected by the local authorities in 2005/2006. Out of which, 89% belongs to households and there was a 5% increase in municipal waste from 2000/01 to 2005/06. It was lower than the 3.3 % average annual increase in waste arising between 1996/07 and 2001/02 (DEFRA, 2007).
A reduction in the industrial waste about 6% was reported from 1998/99 to 2002/03.
Figure 1.2.a: Waste Composition data for England
Source: DEFRA, (2007).
The fate of generated wastes- where it goes to?
It is estimated that about three fourth of municipal solid waste is landfilled while reuse and recycling (including composting) is done for the 13% of MSW arising. The remaining 9% is pre-treated by incineration and 1% is pre-treated by a range of methods such as gasification/pyrolysis; mechanical biological treatment (MBT); and anaerobic digestion (ETBPP, 2000a).Since "Waste strategy 2000", by Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), the priorities are given to waste prevention and minimization in the first place than recycling and disposal. Sustainable waste management is the one of the key objectives of waste strategy of UK to achieve enhanced resource efficiency by industries, community, enterprises, local authorities (Barnes &Phillips, 2000a).
The key proposals of the action plan wasPrioritizing waste prevention, minimization, reuses, recycle and recover energy from wastes thus enabling resource and material efficiency and incentivizing any plans which facilitates the above processes.Reforming regulations and policies to drive the flow of waste away from landfills and to enable better strategy to adopt waste reduction and prevention methods thereby reducing the cost to compliant business and regulators.It also focuses on stimulating investment to encourage collection, recycling material recovery and marketing infrastructure.
2.0 Waste hierarchy and waste minimization- Definitions
According to Environment Agency: Waste Minimization is
"The reduction of waste at source, by understanding and changing processes to reduce and prevent waste. This is also known as process or resource efficiency. Waste minimization can include the substitution of less environmentally harmful materials in the production process" (Phillip, 2011)Anon (Canada) defines waste prevention as
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